Pharmacy Practice (PHMD)

PHMD 1000. College: An Introduction. 1 Hour.

Introduces the University, college, and health professions to enhance students’ understanding of self and the decisions they make academically and socially as members of the University’s diverse, multicultural community. Offers students an opportunity to engage in group activities and individual assignments along with active participation in a learning community to help them adjust to life on an urban campus, develop a better understanding of the learning process, acquire essential academic skills, and make connections with the faculty and students in the college. Prereq. Bouvé students with freshman standing only.

PHMD 1001. Introduction to the Profession of Pharmacy. 1 Hour.

Introduces the profession of pharmacy in this one-credit course. Covers pharmacists’ responsibilities, pharmacy organizations, ethical issues related to healthcare, and the education and training of pharmacists. Offers students the opportunity to learn about the role of the pharmacist within different healthcare systems. Guest speakers, from several areas of pharmacy practice, provide firsthand information on career options. Prereq. Pharmacy majors only.

PHMD 1201. Introduction to Pharmacy Practice. 2.5 Hours.

Seeks to prepare pharmacy students for their first introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE)/co-op. Introduces students to the policies, procedures, and expectations of the Cooperative Education Program. Offers students an opportunity to develop the skills needed to be successful in the preparation, activity, and reflection components of the pharmacy co-op program; to prepare their first résumés; and to learn proper interviewing techniques. Exposes students to the various co-op opportunities available to them as well as potential career paths within the pharmacy profession. Covers workplace issues including diversity, sexual harassment, ethics, and confidence of information. Introduces students to the technical knowledge and skills required for their first pharmacy experiences in both community and institutional pharmacy practice and to drug information resources. Offers students an opportunity to develop basic communication skills to aid them in successful completion of their first IPPE. Prereq. Sophomore standing or above; pharmacy and pharmacy studies majors only. Coreq. PHMD 1202.

PHMD 1202. Lab for PHMD 1201. 0.5 Hours.

Accompanies PHMD 1201. Focuses on skills needed for future patient-care experiences. Intended to supplement lecture content and provide practical reinforcement of concepts. Offers students an opportunity to apply knowledge learned in the classroom related to the appropriate and effective use of communication strategies, drug information resources, and sterile techniques. Labs related to the learning of communication skills support a client-centered approach in assessing, adapting, and evaluating patient medication use needs. Offers students an opportunity to learn and practice of six core communication skills: (1) listening, (2) asking questions, (3) providing empathy, (4) understanding and managing confusion, (5) understanding and managing conflict, and (6) understanding and analyzing nonverbal behavior. Coreq. PHMD 1201.

PHMD 1990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions.

PHMD 2000. Professional Development Co-op. 1 Hour.

Introduces the Bouvé Cooperative Education Program. Offers students an opportunity to develop job-search and career-management skills. Students perform assessments of their workplace skills, interests, and values and discuss how they impact personal career decisions. Offers students an opportunity to prepare a professional-style résumé, learn proper interviewing techniques, and gain an understanding of the opportunities available to them for co-op. Introduces career paths, choices, and career decision making. Familiarizes students with workplace issues relative to their field of study and presents the MyNEU COOL database in the job-search and referral process. Presents and discusses co-op policies, procedures, and expectations of the Bouvé Cooperative Education Program and co-op employers.

PHMD 2310. Educational and Behavioral Interventions in Pharmacy Practice. 2 Hours.

Seeks to provide pharmacy students with theoretical frameworks and principles for understanding communication processes and practical tools to engage in effective interpersonal communication when providing medication therapy management to diverse patient populations. Uses a patient-centered approach to assess, adapt, and evaluate various types of communications within a variety of pharmacy settings. Reviews core communication skills, including listening, asking questions, providing empathy, understanding/managing confusion, understanding/managing conflict, and understanding/analyzing nonverbal behavior. Additional skills covered include detecting/intervening to improve adherence, facilitating behavioral change, communicating with special populations, leading/facilitating group communication, collaborating with other professionals, analyzing organizational communication in pharmacies, and understanding/analyzing health promotion campaigns. Offers students an opportunity to become aware of communication issues facing pharmacy practice at interpersonal, interprofessional, and organizational levels. Coreq. PHMD 2311.

PHMD 2311. Lab for PHMD 2310. 0.5 Hours.

Offers a laboratory course designed to support a patient-centered approach to how pharmacy students assess, adapt, and evaluate various types of communications within pharmacy settings. Offers students an opportunity to apply course concepts in group discussions, interact with standardized patients, and complete various written and oral exercises. Seeks to provide students with practical tools to engage in effective interpersonal communication when providing medication therapy management to diverse patient populations. Also covers how to deliver a professional presentation of information to an audience. Coreq. PHMD 2310.

PHMD 2350. Healthcare Systems. 3 Hours.

Examines the evolution of the healthcare system in the United States, from the early forms of organized institutional care to the dynamic, increasingly integrated, and managed-care system of present healthcare delivery. Examines the interaction of regulatory, economic, political, social, and ethical aspects of the healthcare system, with emphasis on issues related to pharmacy practice. Current proposals for healthcare and drug-related reform and regulation are considered. Considers the impact and consequences of action in one era on the structure and function of healthcare in later years. Prereq. Junior, senior, or graduate standing.

PHMD 2990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions.

PHMD 3450. Research Methodology and Biostatistics. 3 Hours.

Offers an interactive course covering aspects of research designs used in experimental and observational studies, hypothesis testing, and an introduction to basic biostatistics. Offers students an opportunity to critically examine selected articles from the clinical literature and to analyze the framing of the research question and the methods used to insure the validity and generalizability of the study’s findings. Clinical trials, observational studies, and problem sets illustrate principles of research design, conduct, and data analysis. Prereq. ENGW 1111, ENGW 1102, ENGL 1111, ENGL 1102, or graduate standing; restricted to students with junior, senior, or graduate standing.

PHMD 3600. Leadership and Advocacy in Health Professions. 2 Hours.

Designed to help facilitate successful careers of young healthcare professionals and expand students’ knowledge of their leadership potential. Consists primarily of topic discussions that include a variety of issues related to professional development, focusing on leadership, organizational and relational skills, and advocacy. Covers global issues in leadership and advocacy. Encourages students to recognize the need for leadership in health professions and the ability of practitioners to influence change regardless of whether they have a title or position of authority. Seeks to be valuable to students with interests in administrative positions in various settings, including in high-level clinical positions, and to students who plan to pursue postgraduate training. Prereq. Junior, senior, or graduate standing; Bouvé students only.

PHMD 3990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions.

PHMD 4350. Exploring Academic Careers. 2 Hours.

Seeks to prepare pharmacy students to become more confident and effective as educators. Also seeks to increase the student’s awareness of academic careers and the roles and responsibilities that faculty play in the class, department, and school of pharmacy. The knowledge, skills, and attitudes discussed and explored in this course are applicable across the profession of pharmacy regardless of practice setting. Prereq. Pharmacy and pharmacy studies students only with fifth-year standing.

PHMD 4580. Drug Interactions. 2 Hours.

Designed as an elective course to enhance students’ knowledge and skills regarding drug interactions. Course lectures review commonly encountered drug interactions, with emphasis on the mechanism and clinical significance of interactions. Class discussions and assignments emphasize a scientific approach to identifying and evaluating potential interactions and recommending appropriate, patient-specific management of a given interaction. Prereq. Senior or graduate standing; pharmacy majors only.

PHMD 4581. Cancer Chemotherapy. 2 Hours.

Emphasizes the role of chemotherapy in the management of malignant disease. Discussions include a review of specific antineoplastic agents, a review of specific malignancies, and related topics. Supportive care for the cancer patient is a focus of topics throughout the course. Prereq. PHMD 4621 with a grade of C.

PHMD 4585. Research Methods in Health Systems. 4 Hours.

Exposes students to the research methods that health system pharmacists use most often when conducting research and builds on the content of PHMD 2350, PHMD 3450, and PHMD 4560. Incorporates a seminar discussion format led by healthcare system-based pharmacists actively involved in clinical research and helps prepare students for careers or postgraduate training programs (e.g., residencies) in health systems. Faculty use published studies, live patient databases, and descriptions of their current research projects to illustrate the topics in each session. Prereq. PHMD 3450; pharmacy majors with senior or graduate standing.

PHMD 4611. Comprehensive Disease Management 1. 6 Hours.

Covers foundational concepts of pharmacy practice, including patient evaluation; identification of drug-related problems; pathophysiology; and clinical management of diseases of the respiratory, cardiovascular, and endocrine systems. Specifically covers asthma and COPD, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, fluids/electrolytes, and renal disorders. Reviews, system-by-system, the mechanisms of these diseases and their evidence-based prevention and treatment strategies. Offers students an opportunity to apply scientific knowledge and principles of medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, pharmaceutics, and pharmacokinetics to the design of rational, evidence-based therapeutic strategies to provide care to patients in inpatient, ambulatory, and community settings. Emphasizes pathophysiology, self-care, patient education, assessment, medication administration, management, monitoring, and preventative health and population-based health outcomes. Prereq. PHMD 2350, PHSC 3412, and PHSC 4502; pharmacy and pharmacy studies students only. Coreq. PHMD 4612.

PHMD 4612. Comprehensive Disease Management 1 Seminar. 1 Hour.

Designed to provide students with opportunities to apply concepts from PHMD 4611 to patient cases, special projects, and other medication-related issues focusing on foundational aspects of pharmacy practice, identification of drug-related problems, and diseases of the respiratory, endocrine, cardiovascular, and renal systems. Accompanies PHMD 4611 and seeks to facilitate accomplishment of course objectives using an active learning format. While completing seminar work, students are expected to review, discuss, integrate, and apply information presented in comprehensive disease management lectures and readings as well as previous and concurrent course work. Coreq. PHMD 4611.

PHMD 4621. Comprehensive Disease Management 2. 6 Hours.

Covers the pathophysiology and clinical management of diseases of the renal, cardiovascular, neurological, and gastrointestinal systems. Reinforces foundational concepts of pharmacy practice and diseases covered in PHMD 4611, while completing a system-by-system review of the mechanisms of renal, cardiovascular, neurological, and gastrointestinal disorders and their evidence-based prevention and treatment strategies. Offers students an opportunity to design rational therapeutic strategies to provide care to patients with these disease states in inpatient, ambulatory, and community settings. Emphasizes pathophysiology, self-care, patient education, assessment, medication administration, management, monitoring, and preventative health and population-based health outcomes. Prereq. PHMD 4611 and PHSC 3430; pharmacy and pharmacy studies students only. Coreq. PHMD 4622 and PHMD 4623.

PHMD 4622. Comprehensive Disease Management 2 Seminar. 1 Hour.

Designed to provide students with opportunities to apply concepts from PHMD 4621 to patient cases, special projects, and other medication-related issues focusing on foundational aspects of pharmacy practice; identification of drug-related problems; and diseases of the renal, cardiovascular, neurological, and gastrointestinal systems. Accompanies PHMD 4621 and seeks to facilitate accomplishment of course objectives using an active-learning format. While completing seminar work, students are expected to review, discuss, integrate, and apply information presented in comprehensive disease management lectures and readings as well as previous and concurrent course work. Activities in seminar are reinforced by laboratory skill-building exercises in PHMD 4623. Coreq. PHMD 4621 and PHMD 4623.

PHMD 4623. Comprehensive Disease Management 2 Skills Lab. 0.5 Hours.

Offers a self-paced, blended learning experience designed to provide the student with functional knowledge and skills in the area of physical assessment, patient education, and counseling in the ambulatory clinic and community pharmacy settings. Uses discussions, videos, podcasts, simulations, and hands-on learning activities in the lab. Offers students an opportunity to apply information gained in previous and concurrent courses to clinical situations. While completing laboratory work, students are expected to review, discuss, integrate, and apply information presented in the closely aligned PHMD 4621 and PHMD 4622 as well as previous and concurrent course work. Coreq. PHMD 4621 and PHMD 4622.

PHMD 4631. Comprehensive Disease Management 3. 6 Hours.

Covers the pathophysiology and clinical management of infectious diseases, solid organ transplant, dermatology, and otic/ophthalmic disorders. Reinforces foundational concepts of pharmacy practice and diseases covered in PHMD 4611 and PHMD 4612, while completing a system-by-system review of the mechanisms of infectious diseases and their evidence-based prevention and treatment strategies. Offers students an opportunity to design rational therapeutic strategies to provide care to patients with these disease states in inpatient, ambulatory, and community settings. Emphasizes pathophysiology, self-care, patient education, assessment, medication administration, management, monitoring, and preventative health and population-based health outcomes. Prereq. PHMD 4621; pharmacy and pharmacy studies students only. Coreq. PHMD 4632 and PHMD 4633.

PHMD 4632. Comprehensive Disease Management 3 Seminar. 1 Hour.

Designed to provide students with opportunities to apply concepts from PHMD 4631 to patient cases, special projects, and other medication-related issues focusing on foundational aspects of pharmacy practice, identification of drug-related problems, and management of the infectious diseases and dermatologic and oral/otic disorders. Accompanies PHMD 4631 and seeks to facilitate accomplishment of course objectives using an active-learning format. While completing seminar work, students are expected to review, discuss, integrate, and apply information presented in comprehensive disease management lectures and readings as well as previous and concurrent course work. Activities in seminar are reinforced by laboratory skill-building exercises in PHMD 4633. Coreq. PHMD 4631 and PHMD 4633.

PHMD 4633. Comprehensive Disease Management 3 Skills Lab. 0.5 Hours.

Teaches and assesses various skills, including interpretation, processing, and verification of medication orders; detection and resolution of drug-related problems; use of current pharmacy software programs; and patient education and counseling in the community pharmacy setting. Uses discussions, videos, podcasts, simulations, and hands-on learning activities in the lab. While completing laboratory work, students are expected to review, discuss, integrate, and apply information presented in the closely aligned PHMD 4631 and PHMD 4632 as well as previous and concurrent course work. Coreq. PHMD 4631 and PHMD 4632.

PHMD 4641. Comprehensive Disease Management 4. 6 Hours.

Covers the pathophysiology and clinical management of men’s and women’s health issues and neurological, psychiatric, and oncologic disorders. Reinforces foundational concepts of pharmacy practice and diseases covered in PHMD 4611, PHMD 4612, and PHMD 4613, while completing a system-by-system review of the mechanisms of infectious diseases and their evidence-based prevention and treatment strategies. Offers students an opportunity to design rational therapeutic strategies to provide care to patients with these disease states in inpatient, ambulatory, and community settings. Emphasizes pathophysiology, self-care, patient education, assessment, medication administration, management, monitoring, and preventative health and population-based health outcomes. Prereq. PHMD 4631; pharmacy and pharmacy studies students only. Coreq. PHMD 4642 and PHMD 4643.

PHMD 4642. Comprehensive Disease Management 4 Seminar. 1 Hour.

Designed to provide students with opportunities to apply concepts from PHMD 4641 to patient cases, special projects, and other medication-related issues focusing on foundational aspects of pharmacy practice, identification of drug-related problems, and management of women’s and men’s disease, psychological disorders, and cancers. Accompanies PHMD 4641 and seeks to facilitate accomplishment of course objectives using an active-learning format. While completing seminar work, students are expected to review, discuss, integrate, and apply information presented in comprehensive disease management lectures and readings as well as previous and concurrent course work. Activities in seminar are reinforced by laboratory skill-building exercises in PHMD 4643. Coreq. PHMD 4641 and PHMD 4643.

PHMD 4643. Comprehensive Disease Management 4 Skills Lab. 0.5 Hours.

Teaches and assesses various skills, including interpretation, processing, and verification of medication orders; detection and resolution of drug-related problems; use of current pharmacy software programs; medication reconciliation; presentation of hospitalized patients; and management of sterile compounding systems in the hospital pharmacy setting. Uses discussions, videos, podcasts, simulations, and hands-on learning activities in the lab. While completing laboratory work, students are expected to review, discuss, integrate, and apply information presented in the closely aligned PHMD 4641 and PHMD 4642 as well as previous and concurrent course work. Coreq. PHMD 4641 and PHMD 4642.

PHMD 4700. Principles in General Medicine. 2 Hours.

Offers students an opportunity to apply concepts learned in comprehensive-disease-management modules to patient cases, special projects, and other medication-related problems in an active-learning environment. Creates an environment similar to that of acute care advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) to enable students to gain familiarity and confidence in disease-state management, oral communication skills, and professional behavior and interactions. Focuses on oral presentations and communication skills, which is similar to how students are evaluated on clinically based rotations; students are also evaluated by quizzes and exams to measure mastery of content-specific objectives. Prereq. PHMD 4631; pharmacy, pharmacy studies, and pharmaceutical sciences students only.

PHMD 4880. Special Topics. 3 Hours.

Explores topics germane to the use of medication as established by the course coordinator in various section offerings. Prereq. Senior standing; pharmacy and pharmacy studies majors only.

PHMD 4890. Contemporary Issues in Geriatric Pharmacy. 2 Hours.

Focuses on physiological and practical aspects of medication use in the elderly, the pharmacist’s role in geriatric care, and the management of disease states and syndromes that predominantly occur in the elderly. Pharmacists must assess and assure safe and effective use of medication in the geriatric population to prevent adverse events that increase morbidity and mortality and reduce quality of life. Utilizes problem-based learning by promoting critical thinking, effective use of resources in research, and application of concepts to real-world situations. Prereq. PHMD 4611 and senior or graduate standing; restricted to majors in pharmacy, pharmacy studies, and pharmaceutical sciences.

PHMD 4970. Junior/Senior Honors Project 1. 4 Hours.

Focuses on in-depth project in which a student conducts research or produces a product related to the student’s major field. Combined with Junior/Senior Project 2 or college-defined equivalent for 8-credit honors project.

PHMD 4971. Junior/Senior Honors Project 2. 4 Hours.

Focuses on second semester of in-depth project in which a student conducts research or produces a product related to the student’s major field. Prereq. PHMD 4970.

PHMD 4990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions.

PHMD 4991. Research. 4 Hours.

Extends current knowledge or offers novel insights through faculty-directed and supervised individual undergraduate research or creative projects. The project must be designed in concert with and obtain formal prior approval from relevant faculty and program director.

PHMD 4992. Directed Study. 1-4 Hours.

Offers independent work under the direction of members of the department on a chosen topic. Course content depends on instructor. Prereq. Junior or senior standing.

PHMD 4993. Independent Study. 1-4 Hours.

Offers independent work under the direction of members of the department on a chosen topic. Course content depends on instructor.

PHMD 5223. Evidence-Based Medicine. 2 Hours.

Studies the principles of evidence-based medicine and how to apply them to patient-centered care. Offers students an opportunity to develop skills in critical appraisal of the scientific literature and practical application of the evidence to clinical decision making. Consists of didactic instruction, in-class group projects, and a group-based written assignment. Applies principles of research methodology, biostatistics, and professional writing. Prereq. (a) PHMD 3450, ENGW 3306, and junior or senior standing or (b) PHMD 3450 and graduate standing; pharmacy students only.

PHMD 5250. Pharmacy Care Management. 3 Hours.

Focuses on the managerial and administrative skills required by a contemporary pharmacist practicing in either a community or hospital setting. Covers classical management principles of planning, decision making, organizing, hiring, and controlling. Case study methods are used as an interactive teaching tool. Also covers pertinent current events. Prereq. PHMD 2350 with a grade of C; pharmacy students only.

PHMD 5270. Economic Evaluation of Pharmaceuticals and Pharmacy Practice. 2 Hours.

Introduces the principles of economic theory of healthcare markets and economic evaluation of health products and services. Economic theory topics include fundamentals of supply and demand, market structure, market failure, and the role of government. Economic evaluation topics include measuring costs and benefits of a specific treatment, types of formal decision analysis, ethical considerations, and implementation in the real world. Prereq. PHMD 4631, PHMD 4632, and fifth-year PharmD standing; pharmacy majors only.

PHMD 5330. Jurisprudence. 3 Hours.

Covers all federal and state laws and regulations that affect the practice of pharmacy. Discusses sources of law including the U.S. Constitution, statutes, administrative regulations, and case law. Introduces federal and state administrative agencies that regulate pharmacy, including the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC), Massachusetts Board of Registration in Pharmacy, and Massachusetts Department of Public Health. Requires students to research a pharmacy case decided by a court and give an oral presentation. Centers on the individuals who operate a pharmacy: pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, and pharmacy interns; their workplaces: pharmacy, pharmacy department, hospital, restricted pharmacy, managed care, nuclear pharmacy, and wholesale businesses; and duties performed by pharmacy personnel: dispensing medication and counseling patients. Prereq. PHMD 4587 and senior or graduate standing; pharmacy majors only.

PHMD 5438. Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience Preparatory Seminar 1. 0.5 Hours.

Seeks to provide relevant information to enable fifth-year students to make informed decisions concerning the selection and completion of the advance pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Using the professional portfolio as a catalyst for exploration, students are required to examine and discuss the variety of APPEs offered. The review of APPE types includes utilizing effective strategies to identify appropriate APPE selections. Students are guided by faculty on how to make APPE selections based on student-identified professional career goals. Prereq. Senior or graduate standing; pharmacy students only.

PHMD 5439. Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience Preparatory Seminar 2. 0.5 Hours.

Designed to provide students with opportunities to apply concepts from PHMD 6438 and to continue to provide relevant information to enable fifth-year students to make informed decisions concerning the selection and completion of the advance pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Seeks to provide new knowledge and strengthen existing knowledge to ensure a smooth transition from the didactic courses to APPEs. Prereq. PHMD 5438 or PHMD 6438 with a grade of C and senior or graduate standing; pharmacy students only.

PHMD 5570. Technology in Healthcare and Pharmacy Practice. 3 Hours.

Examines trends and drivers of innovation in healthcare and how emerging technologies are assessed and adopted. Introduces students to frameworks for evaluating emerging technologies and their existing and potential impacts. Uses examples from electronic health records, outpatient e-prescribing, inpatient computerized physician order entry systems, regional health information organizations, personal health records, quality of care, pharmacogenomics, patient-centered and other emerging technologies relevant to pharmacy practice and research to illustrate concepts. Prereq. Junior, senior, or graduate standing.

PHMD 5600. Pharmacy Capstone. 4 Hours.

Acts as a final integrator of the major, general education, and experiential aspects of the student’s education. Expects students to demonstrate motivation and initiative and to work cooperatively with their faculty mentor, community partners, and fellow students (where applicable) in order to complete a comprehensive, high-quality scholarly work (e.g., a research project, educational project, administrative project, business plan, case report, or community-service learning project or professional manuscript) appropriate for dissemination to the university and professional community. The timeline for completion is set by the faculty mentor and agreed to by the individual or all members of the student group. Prereq. Junior, senior, or graduate standing; pharmacy students and pharmacy studies students only.

PHMD 5675. Ambulatory Care Pharmacy Practice in Urban Health. 2 Hours.

Introduces various aspects of ambulatory care pharmacy practice and social, economic, cultural, and psychological intricacies. Covers chronic disease management and prevention and wellness. Offers students an opportunity to gain insight into the pharmacist’s role as part of a patient-centered medical home model and/or an interdisciplinary primary care team, with an emphasis on urban health. Requires students to be enrolled in the third professional year of the pharmacy curriculum and to apply and be approved by the course coordinators through an application process. Criteria to be considered include, but are not limited to, grades of B or better in PHMD 4611, PHMD 4612, PHMD 4621, and PHMD 4622.

PHMD 5976. Directed Study. 1-4 Hours.

Offers independent work under the direction of members of the department on a chosen topic. Course content depends on instructor.

PHMD 5978. Independent Study. 1-4 Hours.

Offers independent work under the direction of members of the department on a chosen topic. Course content depends on instructor. Prereq. Junior, senior, or graduate standing.

PHMD 5984. Research. 1-4 Hours.

Offers an opportunity to conduct research under faculty supervision. Prereq. Junior, senior, or graduate standing.

PHMD 6220. Advocacy and Pharmacy Health Policy. 3 Hours.

Designed to introduce students to the political influences shaping the U.S. healthcare system in general and pharmacy practice specifically. In addition to a theoretical grounding through seminars, case analyses, and project development, students also have an opportunity to gain practical advocacy and policy analytical skills necessary to effect change in the current system. Addresses key questions such as: What is the role of government in health policy? What are the key elements of the public policy process at the local, state, and national level? What role do pharmacists and pharmacy associations play in the policy process? How can individuals and groups influence the policy process? The goal of this course is to prepare students to ultimately take a leadership role in the pharmacy profession. Prereq. Junior, senior, or graduate standing.

PHMD 6440. Internal Medicine Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. 6 Hours.

Applies principles of pathophysiology, therapeutics, and communication to the pharmacy-care management of individual patients in the hospital setting. In collaboration with other members of the healthcare team, and under the supervision of a clinical preceptor, offers identification of appropriate drug therapy and monitoring requirements for common pathophysiologic processes, and, when indicated, modification of population-based treatment strategies based on the unique characteristics of individual patients. Prereq. Pharmacy majors only.

PHMD 6441. Acute Care Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. 6 Hours.

Applies principles of pathophysiology, therapeutics, and communication to the pharmacy-care management of individual patients. In collaboration with other members of the healthcare team, and under the supervision of a clinical preceptor, offers identification of appropriate drug therapy and monitoring requirements for common pathophysiologic processes, and, when indicated, modification of population-based treatment strategies based on the unique characteristics of individual patients. Prereq. Pharmacy majors only.

PHMD 6442. Ambulatory Care Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. 6 Hours.

Applies principles of pathophysiology, therapeutics, and communication to the pharmacy-care management of individual patients in an ambulatory clinic environment. In collaboration with other members of the healthcare team, and under the supervision of a clinical preceptor, offers identification of appropriate drug therapy and monitoring requirements for common pathophysiologic processes, and, when indicated, modification of population-based treatment strategies based on the unique characteristics of individual patients. Prereq. Pharmacy majors only.

PHMD 6443. Community Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. 6 Hours.

Applies principles of pathophysiology, therapeutics, and communication to the pharmacy-care management of individual patients in a community setting. In collaboration with other members of the healthcare team, and under the supervision of a clinical preceptor, offers identification of appropriate drug therapy and monitoring requirements for common pathophysiologic processes, and, when indicated, modification of population-based treatment strategies based on the unique characteristics of individual patients. Prereq. Pharmacy majors only.

PHMD 6444. Internal Medicine Elective Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. 6 Hours.

Applies principles of pathophysiology, therapeutics, and communication to the pharmacy-care management of individual patients in the hospital setting. In collaboration with other members of the healthcare team, and under the supervision of a clinical preceptor, offers identification of appropriate drug therapy and monitoring requirements for common pathophysiologic processes, and, when indicated, modification of population-based treatment strategies based on the unique characteristics of individual patients. Prereq. PHMD 6440 with a grade of C; pharmacy majors only.

PHMD 6445. Ambulatory Care Elective Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. 6 Hours.

Applies principles of pathophysiology, therapeutics, and communication to the pharmacy-care management of individual patients in an ambulatory clinic environment. In collaboration with other members of the healthcare team, and under the supervision of a clinical preceptor, offers identification of appropriate drug therapy and monitoring requirements for common pathophysiologic processes, and, when indicated, modification of population-based treatment strategies based on the unique characteristics of individual patients. Prereq. PHMD 6442 with a grade of C; pharmacy majors only.

PHMD 6446. Psychiatry Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. 6 Hours.

Applies principles of pathophysiology, therapeutics, and communication to the pharmacy-care management of individual patients under psychiatric care. In collaboration with other members of the healthcare team, and under the supervision of a clinical preceptor, offers identification of appropriate drug therapy and monitoring requirements for common pathophysiologic processes, and, when indicated, modification of population-based treatment strategies based on the unique characteristics of individual patients. Prereq. Pharmacy majors only.

PHMD 6447. Community Elective Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. 6 Hours.

Applies principles of pathophysiology, therapeutics, and communication to the pharmacy-care management of individual patients in a community setting. In collaboration with other members of the healthcare team, and under the supervision of a clinical preceptor, offers identification of appropriate drug therapy and monitoring requirements for common pathophysiologic processes, and, when indicated, modification of population-based treatment strategies based on the unique characteristics of individual patients.Prereq. Pharmacy majors only.

PHMD 6448. Long Term Care Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. 6 Hours.

Applies principles of pathophysiology, therapeutics, and communication to the pharmacy-care management of individual patients in a nursing home or rehabilitation center. Under the supervision of a clinical preceptor and, when appropriate, in conjunction with other members of the healthcare team, offers identification of appropriate drug therapy and monitoring requirements for common pathophysiologic processes, and, when indicated, modification of population-based treatment strategies based on the unique characteristics of individual patients. Prereq. Pharmacy majors only.

PHMD 6449. Geriatrics Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. 6 Hours.

Applies principles of pathophysiology, therapeutics, and communication to the pharmacy-care management of individual patients in a geriatric practice setting. Under the supervision of a clinical preceptor, and, when appropriate, in conjunction with other members of the healthcare team, offers identification of appropriate drug therapy and monitoring requirements for common pathophysiologic processes, and, when indicated, modification of population-based treatment strategies based on the unique characteristics of individual patients. Prereq. Pharmacy majors only.

PHMD 6450. Pediatrics Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. 6 Hours.

Applies principles of pathophysiology, therapeutics, and communication to the pharmacy-care management of individual patients in a pediatric practice setting. Under the supervision of a clinical preceptor, and, when appropriate, in conjunction with other members of the healthcare team, offers identification of appropriate drug therapy and monitoring requirements for common pathophysiologic processes, and, when indicated, modification of population-based treatment strategies based on the unique characteristics of individual patients. Prereq. Pharmacy majors only.

PHMD 6451. Neonatology Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. 6 Hours.

Applies principles of pathophysiology, therapeutics, and communication to the pharmacy-care management of individual patients in a neonatal practice setting. Under the supervision of a clinical preceptor, and, when appropriate, in conjunction with other members of the healthcare team, offers identification of appropriate drug therapy and monitoring requirements for common pathophysiologic processes, and, when indicated, modification of population-based treatment strategies based on the unique characteristics of individual patients. Prereq. Pharmacy majors only.

PHMD 6452. Critical Care Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. 6 Hours.

Applies principles of pathophysiology, therapeutics, and communication to the pharmacy-care management of individual patients in a critical-care practice setting. Under the supervision of a clinical preceptor, and, when appropriate, in conjunction with other members of the healthcare team, offers identification of appropriate drug therapy and monitoring requirements for common pathophysiologic processes, and, when indicated, modification of population-based treatment strategies based on the unique characteristics of individual patients. Prereq. Pharmacy majors only.

PHMD 6453. Surgery Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. 6 Hours.

Applies principles of pathophysiology, therapeutics, and communication to the pharmacy-care management of individual patients in a surgical practice setting. Under the supervision of a clinical preceptor, and, when appropriate, in conjunction with other members of the healthcare team, offers identification of appropriate drug therapy and monitoring requirements for common pathophysiologic processes, and, when indicated, modification of population-based treatment strategies based on the unique characteristics of individual patients. Prereq. Pharmacy majors only.

PHMD 6454. Cardiology Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. 6 Hours.

Applies principles of pathophysiology, therapeutics, and communication to the pharmacy-care management of individual patients in a cardiology practice setting. Under the supervision of a clinical preceptor, and, when appropriate, in conjunction with other members of the healthcare team, offers identification of appropriate drug therapy and monitoring requirements for common pathophysiologic processes, and, when indicated, modification of population-based treatment strategies based on the unique characteristics of individual patients. Prereq. Pharmacy majors only.

PHMD 6455. Pharmacokinetics Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. 6 Hours.

Applies principles of pathophysiology, therapeutics, and communication to the pharmacy-care management of individual patients on a pharmacokinetic consult service. Under the supervision of a clinical preceptor, and, when appropriate, in conjunction with other members of the healthcare team, offers identification of appropriate drug therapy and monitoring requirements for common pathophysiologic processes, and, when indicated, modification of population-based treatment strategies based on the unique characteristics of individual patients. Prereq. Pharmacy majors only.

PHMD 6456. Drug Information Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. 6 Hours.

Applies drug information skills to site-specific drug information requests under the supervision of a clinical preceptor, and, when appropriate, in conjunction with other members of the site team. Using appropriate sources, the student analyzes drug information findings, such as dosing, monitoring, indications, efficacy, and adverse drug reactions. Prereq. Pharmacy majors only.

PHMD 6457. Oncology Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. 6 Hours.

Applies principles of pathophysiology, therapeutics, and communication to the pharmacy-care management of individual patients in an oncology practice setting. Under the supervision of a clinical preceptor, and, when appropriate, in conjunction with other members of the healthcare team, offers identification of appropriate drug therapy and monitoring requirements for common pathophysiologic processes, and, when indicated, modification of population-based treatment strategies based on the unique characteristics of individual patients. Prereq. Pharmacy majors only.

PHMD 6458. Drug Utilization Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. 6 Hours.

Identifies topics and design of methodology for drug-use evaluation as well as completion of data collection, data evaluation, and presentation of results under the supervision of a clinical preceptor, and, when appropriate, in conjunction with other members of the healthcare team. Prereq. Pharmacy majors only.

PHMD 6459. Home Health Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. 6 Hours.

Applies principles of pathophysiology, therapeutics, and communication to the pharmacy-care management of individual patients in a home healthcare practice setting. Under the supervision of a clinical preceptor, and, when appropriate, in conjunction with other members of the healthcare team, offers identification of appropriate drug therapy and monitoring requirements for common pathophysiologic processes, and, when indicated, modification of population-based treatment strategies based on the unique characteristics of individual patients. Prereq. Pharmacy majors only.

PHMD 6460. Nutritional Support Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. 6 Hours.

Applies principles of pathophysiology, therapeutics, and communication to the pharmacy-care management of individual patients on a nutritional support consult service. Under the supervision of a clinical preceptor, and, when appropriate, in conjunction with other members of the healthcare team, offers identification of appropriate drug therapy and monitoring requirements for common pathophysiologic processes, and, when indicated, modification of population-based treatment strategies based on the unique characteristics of individual patients. Prereq. Pharmacy majors only.

PHMD 6461. Infectious Disease Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. 6 Hours.

Applies principles of pathophysiology, therapeutics, and communication to the pharmacy-care management of individual patients on an infectious disease consult service. Under the supervision of a clinical preceptor, and, when appropriate, in conjunction with other members of the healthcare team, offers identification of appropriate drug therapy and monitoring requirements for common pathophysiologic processes, and, when indicated, modification of population-based treatment strategies based on the unique characteristics of individual patients. Prereq. Pharmacy majors only.

PHMD 6462. Pharmacy Industry Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. 6 Hours.

Focuses on the application of regulatory affairs and healthcare principles in the pharmaceutical industry. Under the supervision of a preceptor, and, when appropriate, in conjunction with other members of the site team, participates in appropriate activities, such as drug research and development, marketing, medical affairs, regulatory affairs, and information service. Prereq. Pharmacy majors only.

PHMD 6463. Pharmacy Administration Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. 6 Hours.

Applies healthcare and management principles, with emphasis on pharmacy administration, under the supervision of a preceptor, and, when appropriate, in conjunction with other members of the site team. Prereq. Pharmacy majors only.

PHMD 6464. Regulatory Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. 6 Hours.

Participates in appropriate activities including but not limited to principles of and compliance with pharmacy law and review of regulations governing the FDA’s mandatory reporting of adverse drug reactions under the supervision of a preceptor, and, when appropriate, in conjunction with other members of the site team. In addition, students may have the opportunity to be given a step-by-step introduction to public record laws, Board Regulations at 247 CMR, and pharmacy statutes at Massachusetts General Laws, Chapter 112, 24(A)–42(A). Prereq. Pharmacy majors only.

PHMD 6465. Managed Care Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. 6 Hours.

Applies principles of pathophysiology, therapeutics, and communication to the pharmacy-care management of individual patients in a managed-care practice setting. Under the supervision of a clinical preceptor, and, when appropriate, in conjunction with other members of the healthcare team, offers identification of appropriate drug therapy and monitoring requirements for common pathophysiologic processes, and, when indicated, modification of population-based treatment strategies based on the unique characteristics of individual patients. Prereq. Pharmacy majors only.

PHMD 6466. Transplantation Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. 6 Hours.

Applies principles of pathophysiology, therapeutics, and communication to the pharmacy-care management of individual patients in a transplantation unit. Under the supervision of a clinical preceptor, and, when appropriate, in conjunction with other members of the healthcare team, offers identification of appropriate drug therapy and monitoring requirements for common pathophysiologic processes, and, when indicated, modification of population-based treatment strategies based on the unique characteristics of individual patients. Prereq. Pharmacy majors only.

PHMD 6467. Directed Practice Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. 6 Hours.

Offers nontraditional experience with an approved preceptor at an appropriate site. Based on availability. Prereq. Pharmacy majors only.

PHMD 6468. International Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. 6 Hours.

Provides an international experience with an approved preceptor at an appropriate site. Based on availability. Prereq. Pharmacy majors only.

PHMD 6469. Management Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. 6 Hours.

Offers students an opportunity to apply healthcare and management principles, with an emphasis on pharmacy management, under the supervision of a preceptor and, when appropriate, in conjunction with other members of the site management team. Prereq. Pharmacy students only.

PHMD 6470. Education Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. 6 Hours.

Offers students an opportunity to teach in the pharmacy curriculum under the supervision of a faculty member. Students have an opportunity to examine how teachers use experience-based and problem-based approaches to engage the range of student learners (third- through fifth-year pharmacy students) to attain their learning goals. Prereq. Pharmacy students only.

PHMD 6471. Research 1 Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. 6 Hours.

Offers students interested in gaining basic or clinical research experience an opportunity to work under the direction of an experienced researcher at an appropriate site. Students can elect either a basic science (lab-based) preceptor or a clinical (patient-based) preceptor. Students can expect to be an active participant in a variety of different research activities and experiences that are deemed appropriate by the preceptor. The research efforts of the student may result in a peer-reviewed research abstract and/or presentation. Prereq. Pharmacy students only.

PHMD 6472. Research 2 Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. 6 Hours.

Offers students an opportunity to further develop research skills and experience gained in PHMD 6471. Intended for those students interested in pursing a postgraduate research training program (e.g., fellowship or graduate school). The research efforts of the student in the course may result in authorship opportunities on a peer-reviewed research abstract and/or manuscript. Prereq. PHMD 6471 (may be taken concurrently) with a grade of C; pharmacy students only.

PHMD 6473. Radiopharmacy Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. 6 Hours.

Offers students an opportunity to examine the application of radiopharmaceuticals in medical imaging methods. Includes but is not limited to computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single-photon tomography (SPECT). Students completing this course may cover aspects of product preparation, administration, and data interpretation. Prereq. Pharmacy students only.

PHMD 6474. Public Health Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. 6 Hours.

Offers students an opportunity to apply knowledge of public health and policy skills to site-specific needs to advance pharmacy practice within the health system. Seeks to increase knowledge in the principles of public health, with opportunities to work on program implementation and evaluation, policy formation, public health research, and participate in planning and administrative meetings within the public health environment. Offers each student an opportunity to participate as a member of a team to complete group and individual assignments.Prereq. Pharmacy students only.

PHMD 6962. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions.

PHMD 6964. Co-op Work Experience. 0 Hours.

Provides eligible students with an opportunity for work experience.