English (ENGL)

ENGL 1000. English at Northeastern. 1 Hour.

Intended for first-year students in the College of Social Sciences and Humanities. Introduces first-year students to the liberal arts in general; familiarizes them with their major; helps them develop the academic skills necessary to succeed (analytical ability and critical thinking); provides grounding in the culture and values of the University community; and helps them develop interpersonal skills—in short, familiarizes students with all skills needed to become a successful university student.

ENGL 1120. Trouble in Utopia. 4 Hours.

Offers a first-year seminar exploring utopian/dystopian thought from Plato to contemporary popular culture, as a site for literary, political, social, and personal experimentation. Offers students opportunities to identify, critique, and theorize utopian ideas in critical and creative writing exercises. Culminates in a collective exhibit for which students produce and analyze their own utopian “artifacts” in the medium of their choice.

ENGL 1130. Animals, Objects, Humans. 4 Hours.

Offers a first-year seminar examining the emotional, aesthetic, and ethical relationships that humans make with animals and objects. Offers students opportunities to engage critically and creatively with the variety of ways that we live those relationships and represent them in literature, art, film, and photography across cultures and through history.

ENGL 1140. Grammar: The Architecture of English. 4 Hours.

Seeks to provide students with the basic tools for analyzing sentence structure—the nuts and bolts of English. Starting from internalized systems of linguistic rules, which allow us to produce and understand language, students study the organizing principles of grammar: how words are assigned to categories (or parts of speech); how they form syntactic units, or phrases; and how these phrases function together in larger units, or clauses. Offers students an opportunity to acquire a precise vocabulary for talking about sentence structure, as well as a useful set of tools for analyzing language in all of its representations.

ENGL 1160. Introduction to Rhetoric. 4 Hours.

Introduces students to major concepts, traditions, and issues in rhetorical studies. Explores the range of ways that people persuade others to change their minds or take action; the relationship among language, truth, and knowledge; and the role of language in shaping identity and culture. Focuses on recognized thinkers from the Western tradition as well as writers that challenge the rhetorical canon. Emphasizes contemporary and interdisciplinary approaches to rhetoric interested in the entire range of rhetorical artifacts, with primary attention given to methods of critically investigating texts and their effects.

ENGL 1400. Introduction to Literary Studies. 4 Hours.

Offers a foundational course designed for English majors. Introduces the methods and topics of English literary and textual studies, including allied media (e.g., film, graphic narrative). Explores strategies for reading, interpreting, and theorizing about texts; for conducting research; for developing skills in thinking analytically and writing clearly about complex ideas; and for entering into written dialogue with scholarship in the diverse fields that comprise literary studies.

ENGL 1410. Introduction to Writing Studies. 4 Hours.

Introduces the basic theories, history, methodologies, and debates surrounding the study of how people learn to write and how writing is used in home, school, work, and civic contexts. Considers writing itself as both a practice and an object of study. Explores historical, rhetorical, linguistic, cognitive, social, and critical approaches to the teaching, study, and practice of writing, both in the U.S. tradition and in international contexts (e.g., UK, France, China). Emphasizes research on the development of critical reading and writing practices and students’ understanding of their own experiences and practices of other groups.

ENGL 1450. Reading and Writing in the Digital Age. 4 Hours.

Grapples with the long and sometimes tumultuous relationship between literature—including fiction, poetry, film, and video games—and new media technologies. Offers students opportunities to historicize and engage the social and literary upheavals of our own technological moment through reading, discussion, writing projects, and practicums that seek to develop skills for analyzing the data and metadata of texts through both qualitative and quantitative methods.

ENGL 1500. British Literature to 1800. 4 Hours.

Surveys the major British writers and major literary works from the Middle Ages to the end of the eighteenth century. Includes works by such writers as Julian of Norwich, Chaucer, Spenser, Shakespeare, Milton, Behn, Pope, and Swift.

ENGL 1501. British Literature 1800 to Present. 4 Hours.

Surveys the major British and British postcolonial writers and major literary movements from the Romantic period through the Victorian and modern periods to the present. Includes works by such writers as Wordsworth, Hemens, Browning, Tennyson, Yeats, Lawrence, Lessing, Beckett, and Achebe.

ENGL 1502. American Literature to 1865. 4 Hours.

Surveys the major American writers and major literary forms from the colonial period to the Civil War. Includes works by such writers as Bradstreet, Taylor, Wheatley, Cooper, Poe, Hawthorne, Douglass, Stowe, Melville, and Emerson.

ENGL 1503. American Literature 1865 to Present. 4 Hours.

Surveys the major American writers and major literary works from the Civil War through the present. Includes works by such writers as Whitman, Dickinson, Twain, James, Hemingway, Moore, Faulkner, Ellison, and Morrison.

ENGL 1600. Introduction to Shakespeare. 4 Hours.

Introduces students to a selection of Shakespeare’s major plays in each of the principle genres of comedy, tragedy, history, and romance.

ENGL 1700. Global Literature to 1500. 4 Hours.

Introduces students to the ancient and classical literatures of Greece, Rome, and the eastern Mediterranean, as well as other premodern literatures in translation.

ENGL 1701. Global Literature 1500 to Present. 4 Hours.

Focuses on the literatures (in English or in translation) of the world from the early modern period to the present.

ENGL 1800. Narrative Medicine. 4 Hours.

Introduces students to the field of narrative medicine, which explores literary analysis as a set of tools for medical practice. Offers students an opportunity to develop close reading and analytical skills that are useful for improving doctor-patient relationships and patient care. Requires students to complete essays that cultivate these skills.

ENGL 1990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 1995. Practicum. 1-4 Hours.

Offers eligible students an opportunity for practical experience. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 2150. Literature and Digital Diversity. 4 Hours.

Focuses on the use of digital methods to analyze and archive literary texts, emphasizing issues of diversity and inclusion. Covers three main areas: text encoding, textual analysis, and archive construction. Considers literary texts and corpora, including works by well-known authors such as Shakespeare, together with collections by marginalized writers, including slave narratives and writings by early modern women. Offers students an opportunity to explore what counts as literature and how computers, databases, and analytical tools give substance to concepts of aesthetic, cultural, and intellectual value as inflected by race and gender.

ENGL 2200. The Bible. 4 Hours.

Studies books of both the Old Testament and the New Testament as literature and as history.

ENGL 2210. Medieval British Literature. 4 Hours.

Surveys the major works of medieval English literature. Includes such works as Sir Gawain, Piers Plowman, and Pearl.

ENGL 2215. Shakespeare’s Comedies. 4 Hours.

Explores such central themes as marriage, sexuality, and festive inversions of power in Shakespeare’s comedies and romances. Gives attention to historical, cultural, and theoretical frameworks for the study of comedy.

ENGL 2216. Shakespeare’s Tragedies. 4 Hours.

Studies the nature of the tragic hero, the questioning of social norms, and the landscape of chaos in plays ranging from Julius Caesar to Coriolanus.

ENGL 2230. 16th-Century British Literature. 4 Hours.

Focuses on the literature and culture of the English Renaissance, including such genres as sonnet sequence, romance, drama, broadside ballads, and ghost stories. Authors may include Wyatt, Sidney, Spenser, Elizabeth I, Shakespeare, and Marlowe, as well as lesser known and anonymous authors.

ENGL 2240. 17th-Century British Literature. 4 Hours.

Examines the literature and culture of the period from the death of Elizabeth I to the end of the century. Considers such figures as Bacon, Jonson, Donne, Herbert, Milton, Marvell, Cavendish, and Behn.

ENGL 2250. 18th-Century British Literature. 4 Hours.

Surveys the long eighteenth century with particular attention to the Augustan age. Includes such major writers as Behn, Pope, Swift, Goldsmith, and Johnson.

ENGL 2260. Romantic Poetry. 4 Hours.

Surveys the development of English Romantic poetry, in both its lyric and longer forms, in Blake, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Byron, Shelley, and Keats, as well as Dorothy Wordsworth, Mary Shelley, and Felicia Hemans. Emphasizes problems of belief and the relationship of the individual to the surrounding world of natural, social, and historical process.

ENGL 2270. Victorian Literature. 4 Hours.

Surveys the major writers, genres, and issues of Victorian England, considering such authors as Tennyson, Browning, Dickens, the Brontës, Hopkins, and Wilde.

ENGL 2280. 19th-Century British Fiction. 4 Hours.

Studies theme and form in the major English novels of the nineteenth century, considering such authors as the Brontës, Charles Dickens, George Eliot, and Thomas Hardy.

ENGL 2290. 20th-Century British Literature. 4 Hours.

Surveys the work of twentieth-century English authors in both poetry and prose, including such writers as William Butler Yeats, D. H. Lawrence, W. H. Auden, Doris Lessing, and Iris Murdoch.

ENGL 2291. Major 20th-Century British Novelists. 4 Hours.

Introduces students to British fiction from Joseph Conrad to John Fowles, including such writers as D. H. Lawrence and Virginia Woolf. Attention given to novelistic form and historical context.

ENGL 2295. Revolution and Revolt in Early American Literature. 4 Hours.

Examines American literature in the context of the colonial Atlantic world and the early Republic, including such writers as Bradford, Bradstreet, Taylor, Edwards, Franklin, Wheatley, Irving, and Bryant.

ENGL 2296. Early African-American Literature. 4 Hours.

Surveys the development and range of black American writers and writers of the black Atlantic, focusing on poetry and prose from the Middle Passage to the Civil War.

ENGL 2301. The Graphic Novel. 4 Hours.

Explores the word-and-image relationship in a narrative form. Offers students an opportunity to learn how to read comics—and what they teach us about reading—in addition to the creative practices that go into making them. Examines antecedents including “engraved novels,” newspaper comic strips, “wordless novels,” underground comic books, and punk fanzines to understand the graphic novel’s rise in the 1970s. Explores current directions in production. Includes visits from artists to discuss the craft of this verbal-visual form. ARTE 2301 and ENGL 2301 are cross-listed.

ENGL 2320. 19th-Century American Novels. 4 Hours.

Focuses on the themes, forms, and techniques of major American novelists of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, such as Cooper, Hawthorne, Melville, Stowe, Twain, and James.

ENGL 2321. 20th- and 21st-Century American Novels. 4 Hours.

Studies the modern and contemporary American novel, considering such writers as Cather, Fitzgerald, Hemingway, Hurston, Faulkner, Bellow, Baldwin, and Morrison.

ENGL 2330. The American Renaissance. 4 Hours.

Studies the nineteenth-century development of an American national literary tradition in the context of democratic and romantic attitudes toward experience, nation formation, and national crisis. Includes such writers as Emerson, Thoreau, Hawthorne, Fuller, and Melville.

ENGL 2340. American Realism. 4 Hours.

Examines the realist tradition in American literature, including local color and native humor, from the end of the Civil War to the beginning of the twentieth century. Includes such writers as Twain, James, Harding Davis, Howells, Crane, Chesnutt, and Norris.

ENGL 2355. Modern American Literature. 4 Hours.

Studies major developments in American poetry and fiction from 1900 to 1945. Considers such poets as Frost, Eliot, Stevens, Williams, and Moore and such novelists as Hemingway, Faulkner, Fitzgerald, and Cather.

ENGL 2360. Modern African-American Literature. 4 Hours.

Surveys the development and range of black American writers in poetry and prose from the post-Civil War period to the present.

ENGL 2370. The Modern Short Story. 4 Hours.

Studies the short story from Henry to the present, including such writers as Joyce, Kafka, Munro, and O’Connor.

ENGL 2380. The Modern Novel. 4 Hours.

Studies the major British and American novelists of the twentieth century. Considers theme and form in such authors as Lawrence, Woolf, Fitzgerald, Ellison, and Hurston.

ENGL 2400. Modern Poetry. 4 Hours.

Studies the modernist tradition in American and British poetry. Considers such writers as Moore, Yeats, Hardy, Frost, Eliot, Stevens, Williams, and Cummings.

ENGL 2410. Contemporary American Literature. 4 Hours.

Studies major movements in American poetry and fiction since 1945. Considers such poets as Plath, Ashbery, and Dove and such novelists as Morrison, Pynchon, and DeLillo.

ENGL 2420. Contemporary Poetry. 4 Hours.

Studies developments in British and (especially) American poetry since 1945. Includes such writers as Bishop, Lowell, Ginsberg, Ashbery, Walcott, Heaney, Kunitz, Jorie Graham, Frank Bidart, Rita Dove, and Kevin Young.

ENGL 2430. Contemporary Fiction. 4 Hours.

Examines British and American writers from 1945 to the present, including such figures as Lessing, Burgess, Pynchon, Morrison, Kingston, and Erdrich.

ENGL 2440. The Modern Bestseller. 4 Hours.

Explores the relationship between commercially successful fiction and the popular imagination.

ENGL 2450. Postcolonial Literature. 4 Hours.

Examines the literature and cultures of postcolonial nations in the Caribbean, Africa, and Asia. Designed to familiarize students with the cultural paradigms and transnational experiences of colonialism. Focuses on the variety of artistic strategies employed by writers to communicate contemporary postcolonial themes such as neocolonialism, nationalism, Third-World feminism, and diaspora.

ENGL 2451. Postcolonial Women Writers. 4 Hours.

Examines the literature and cultures of postcolonial nations in the Caribbean, Africa, Asia, and elsewhere through the lens of gender. Designed to familiarize students with the relationships between cultural paradigms associated with gender and transnational experiences of colonialism. Focuses on the variety of artistic strategies employed by writers to communicate the impacts of gender and sexuality on contemporary postcolonial themes such as neocolonialism, nationalism, and diaspora. Writers may include Chimamanda Adichie, Nawal El-Saadawi, Marjane Satrapi, Bessie Head, Arundhati Roy, Banana Yoshimoto, Sonia Singh, and Dionne Brand.

ENGL 2455. American Women Writers. 4 Hours.

Surveys the diversity of American women’s writing to ask what it means to describe writers as disparate as Phillis Wheatley, Edith Wharton, Toni Morrison, and Alison Bechdel as part of the same “tradition.” With attention to all genres of American women’s writing, introduces issues of genre and gender; literary identification; canons; the politics of recuperation; silence and masquerade; gender and sexuality; intersectionality; sexual and literary politics, compulsory heterosexuality, and more. AFAM 2455, ENGL 2455, and WMNS 2455 are cross-listed.

ENGL 2460. Multiethnic Literatures of the U.S.. 4 Hours.

Explores contemporary American literature by writers from distinctive ethnic groups (for example, Native, Asian, African, Latino/a, Jewish, Italian, Irish, Arab). Features a variety of works that reflect an evolving recognition of the artistically and culturally diverse nature of American literature.

ENGL 2470. Asian-American Literature. 4 Hours.

Introduces students to American writers of Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Filipino, South Asian, and Southeast Asian descent. Focuses on works published since the 1960s. Pays close attention to prevalent themes, sociohistorical contexts, and literary form.

ENGL 2480. U.S. Latino/a Literature. 4 Hours.

Introduces students to American authors from various Spanish-speaking origins (for example, Mexican, Cuban, Dominican, and Puerto Rican). Explores the use of both traditional and experimental forms and themes such as gender roles, bilingualism, and cultural identity. Examines works written in English and published since the 1960s.

ENGL 2490. Native American Literature. 4 Hours.

Introduces students to Native American authors and critics. Emphasizes works published since the Native American renaissance of the late 1960s. Addresses ongoing critical debates such as the connection between Native traditions and contemporary Native American literature.

ENGL 2510. Horror Fiction. 4 Hours.

Explores English and American horror fiction. Focuses on short stories, novels, and movies. Examines the evolution of horror fiction and the various themes, techniques, and uses of the macabre.

ENGL 2520. Science Fiction. 4 Hours.

Traces the development of various science fiction themes, conventions, and approaches from early human-vs.-machine tales to tales of alien encounters. Examines how science fiction explores the relationship between humans and technology as well as humans and nature.

ENGL 2600. Irish Literary Culture Abroad. 4 Hours.

Explores Irish writers from the nineteenth century through the present. Emphasizes their relationships to contemporary Irish society. Explores the formal traditions of Irish writing as well as the historical, political, and cultural discourses that Irish writing has both helped to shape and within which the writing circulates. As the course takes place in Dublin during the summer term, offers students an opportunity to meet living Irish writers who talk about their relationship to the literary tradition and their own craft. Covers writers such as Oscar Wilde, James Joyce, Kate O’Brien, Colm Tóibín, Anne Enright, Paul Murray, Kevin Barry, and Maeve Binchy.

ENGL 2610. Contemporary Israeli Literature and Art Abroad. 4 Hours.

Explores contemporary Israeli culture through literature and art. Focuses on the tensions, pains, and pleasures of existence from various Israeli points of view. Takes place in Israel during the summer term, offering students an opportunity to meet with contemporary Israeli writers, visit sites of the literary settings, and explore art galleries and museums. Readings include short stories and poetry by major Israeli and Palestinian writers from 1948 through the present. ENGL 2610 and JWSS 2610 are cross-listed.

ENGL 2620. What Is Nature? (Abroad). 4 Hours.

Focuses on a variety of texts (imaginative literature, memoir, scientific writing, creative nonfiction, and popular journalism) that take nature, ecology, and the environment as their subject. Examines paintings, photography, and other visual representations (such as computer simulations) of the natural world. Takes place in Boston and in the United Kingdom.

ENGL 2690. Boston in Literature. 4 Hours.

Explores the various ways in which the city of Boston and its environs are represented in literature and other media. Each semester, the course focuses on a different aspect of Boston in literature, such as representations of Boston’s different communities, different historical eras, particular genres or concepts associated with the city, and so forth. Offers students an opportunity to build upon their readings about the city by experiencing independent site visits, class field trips, guest speakers, and other activities. In addition to a culminating group or individual research project about Boston, students may also have the opportunity to participate in a community-based reading project.

ENGL 2700. Creative Writing. 4 Hours.

Gives the developing writer an opportunity to practice writing various forms of both poetry and prose. Features in-class discussion of student work.

ENGL 2710. Style and Editing. 4 Hours.

Explores the relationship between style and substance through close attention to choices made at the level of the paragraph, sentence, and word. Introduces editorial processes and practices and gives students practice in editing for themselves and others.

ENGL 2730. Digital Writing. 4 Hours.

Explores the ways in which composing processes and meaning are impacted when writing moves from material media (e.g., print, images, voice, and performance) to digital media (e.g., hypertexts, digital stories, and videos). Readings cover aspects of digital writing as semiotic (e.g., domains of meaning, mode, materiality, delivery, ensembles of meaning) and draw on theories of multimodality to explore digital remediations of writing. Culminates in an electronic portfolio and collective exhibit.

ENGL 2740. Writing and Community Engagement. 4 Hours.

Offers students an opportunity to study and practice writing in community contexts through advocacy writing, service-learning, community research, and/or community publishing.

ENGL 2760. Writing in Global Contexts. 4 Hours.

Explores the various ways that linguistic diversity shapes our everyday, academic, and professional lives. Offers students an opportunity to learn about language policy, the changing place of World English in globalization, and what contemporary theories of linguistic diversity, such as translingualism, mean for writing. Invites students to explore their own multilingual communities or histories through empirical or archival research.

ENGL 2770. Writing to Heal. 4 Hours.

Explores how creative writing can be used as a healing tool. Offers students opportunities to analyze, theorize, and create healing narratives through readings, in-class writing activities, writing workshops, and process journals. Culminates in the creation and revision of written personal narratives as well as a digital storytelling project.

ENGL 2780. Visual Writing: Writing Visuals. 4 Hours.

Explores how visual elements, such as fonts, graphics, charts, and video, work within different types of documents to reach various audiences across cultures. Readings cover several aspects of visual writing (e.g., thinking, learning, and expressing) and draw on theories of visual rhetoric to explore the interaction among content, visual elements, audiences, and contexts. Culminates in an electronic portfolio and collective exhibit.

ENGL 2830. Literary Theory. 4 Hours.

Introduces students to major twentieth-century theoretical approaches to literature in conjunction with the close reading of literary works in several genres.

ENGL 2850. Writing for Social Media: Theory and Practice. 4 Hours.

Explores the development and roles of social media writing. Asks students to describe, define, and contextualize current social media genre(s) using readings from social media sites, scholarship, popular/journalistic works, and fiction. Invites students to adopt a new social media platform and to produce social media writing in short, longer individually produced, and longer collaborative forms. Offers each student an opportunity to create a curated, reflective portfolio that works toward an integrated personal/professional digital identity.

ENGL 2990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 2991. Research Practicum. 2-4 Hours.

Involves students in collaborative research under the supervision of a faculty member. Offers students an opportunity to learn basic research methods in the discipline. Requires permission of instructor for freshmen. May be repeated once for up to 4 total credits.

ENGL 2995. Practicum. 1-4 Hours.

Offers eligible students an opportunity for practical experience. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 3151. Topics in Early Literatures Abroad. 4 Hours.

Focuses on a particular aspect of medieval or Renaissance British literature, such as medieval romance or Renaissance representations of gender and sexuality. Designated for students engaged in study abroad through the Dialogue of Civilizations program.

ENGL 3325. Rhetoric of Law. 4 Hours.

Introduces students to the persuasive work of legal texts, procedures, and institutions. Investigates the range of critical approaches to the study of law and rhetoric, as well as the implications of understanding law as rhetorical. Draws on texts produced by lawyers and judges, classical rhetoricians, contemporary rhetorical critics, and legal scholars.

ENGL 3340. Technologies of Text. 4 Hours.

Examines innovations that have reshaped how humans share information, e.g., the alphabet, the book, the printing press, the postal system, the computer. Focuses on debates over privacy, memory, intellectual property, and textual authority that have historically accompanied the rise of new media forms and genres. Offers students an opportunity to gain skills for working with texts using the rapidly changing tools of the present, e.g., geographic information systems, data mining, textual analysis.

ENGL 3370. Writing Cultures. 4 Hours.

Offers students an opportunity to conduct qualitative empirical research (using methods such as interviewing and observation) into rhetorical practices, such as reading, writing, listening, speaking, and body language. Explores the role of rhetoric and writing in the representation of people, cultures, and research in online and physical spaces.

ENGL 3375. Writing Boston. 4 Hours.

Explores how writing shapes the life of, and life in, the city. Considers how Boston is constructed in a range of discourses and disciplines. Offers students an opportunity to research and write about the city and participate in a community-based writing project.

ENGL 3376. Creative Nonfiction. 4 Hours.

Explores how writers apply narrative strategies and techniques to factual material. Offers students an opportunity to read and write a variety of nonfiction forms (e.g., narrative essays and narrative journalism, travel and science writing, memoir, editorials, protest and political essays), as well as cross-genre and hybrid forms (e.g., nonfiction prose mixed with poetry, audio and graphic nonfiction). The topics for narrative nonfiction writing apply to a wide array of disciplines, including the humanities, the sciences, and journalism.

ENGL 3377. Poetry Workshop. 4 Hours.

Offers an advanced workshop in writing and reading original poetry. Students experiment in established poetic forms. Features in-class discussion of student work.

ENGL 3378. Fiction Workshop. 4 Hours.

Offers an advanced workshop in writing and reading original fiction. Features in-class discussion of student work.

ENGL 3379. Nonfiction Workshop. 4 Hours.

Offers an advanced workshop in writing and reading original nonfiction. Features in-class discussion of student work.

ENGL 3380. Topics in Writing. 4 Hours.

Allows writers to hone their skills as readers and writers and to develop their interests in a particular form, such as travel writing, autobiography, and science writing. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 3381. The Practice and Theory of Teaching Writing. 4 Hours.

Focuses on the teaching of writing by studying the professional literature of writing theory as well as a teaching practicum. Students work as a writing tutor or shadow experienced teachers. Offers students an opportunity to prepare for future teaching of writing and to obtain deeper insight into their own writing processes.

ENGL 3382. Publishing in the 21st Century. 4 Hours.

Explores modes and processes of publication in an era of technological and economic change. Investigates the roles of writers, editors, and publishers in this shifting landscape. Offers students an opportunity to attend readings, lectures, and other community literacy events and work with community partners on publication projects.

ENGL 3384. The Writer’s Marketplace. 4 Hours.

Explores how writers negotiate the world of literary publishing. Focuses on producing publishable work in genres of the student’s choice (fiction, poetry, creative nonfiction), submitting work to appropriate venues, and working with editors and agents.

ENGL 3426. Literature and Politics. 4 Hours.

Explores how authors represent the religious, moral, ethical, and social conflicts arising from the acquisition, use, and misuse of political power.

ENGL 3427. The Literature of Science. 4 Hours.

Examines historical instances of the discovery methods and models of literature and science, exploring one or more of the following areas: the relationship of the methods and models of literature and science; the treatment of scientific methods and models in literary texts; and the use of assumed cultural contexts, and literary devices, techniques, and traditions in scientific texts. Readings are drawn from the areas of social history of science, science, and literature.

ENGL 3487. Film and Text Abroad. 4 Hours.

Studies the similarities and differences between literary texts and film versions of those texts or the interrelations between film and literature as a means of cultural expression in a specific country outside the United States. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 3488. Film and Text. 4 Hours.

Studies either the similarities and differences between literary texts and film versions of those texts or the interrelations between film and literature as means of cultural expression during a specific historical period. For example, students might compare Doctorow’s Book of Daniel to the film version, Daniel, or they might study books and movies of a period like the sixties that reflect the spirit of the era (Catch-22, The Graduate).

ENGL 3572. Fantasy. 4 Hours.

Explores the social, psychological, and social contexts of fantasy in the work of writers such as Carroll, Poe, Kafka, Le Guin, and Tolkien.

ENGL 3582. Children’s Literature. 4 Hours.

Studies children’s literature with attention to such matters as genre, theme, and social dynamics.

ENGL 3589. Psychology and Literature. 4 Hours.

Concentrates on twentieth-century novels and short stories that stress individual behavior and motivation and reveal human mental and emotional processes. Includes such writers as Kafka, Woolf, Faulkner, Conrad, and Lawrence.

ENGL 3605. Medieval Romance and Modern Readers. 4 Hours.

Focuses on a variety of medieval romances in their original historical and cultural contexts. Includes the study of adaptations and retellings of medieval romances in modern literature, film, and art.

ENGL 3607. Chaucer. 4 Hours.

Surveys the work of Chaucer, with emphasis on the Canterbury Tales.

ENGL 3618. Milton. 4 Hours.

Concentrates on Milton’s Paradise Lost, with supplementary readings in his minor poetry and prose.

ENGL 3619. Emerson and Thoreau. 4 Hours.

Focuses on Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau, two major American Romantic writers whose ideas about the individual, spirituality, nature, and politics have had a wide-ranging impact on American culture. Readings include essays, poetry, and journals by these two Massachusetts-based authors.

ENGL 3663. The African-American Novel. 4 Hours.

Studies the African-American novelist’s place in the history of American fiction. Focuses on Chesnutt, Toomer, Wright, Ellison, and contemporary novelists and on their different perceptions of the African-American experience in America.

ENGL 3676. Representing Gender and Sexuality in Literature. 4 Hours.

Investigates the construction of gender and its representation in relation to sexuality, power, and subjectivity in a variety of texts. May be repeated without limit. ENGL 3676 and WMNS 3676 are cross-listed.

ENGL 3678. Bedrooms and Battlefields: Hebrew Bible and the Origins of Sex, Gender, and Ethnicity. 4 Hours.

Considers stories from Hebrew Scripture in English translation, beginning with the Garden of Eden through the Book of Ruth, asking how these foundational narratives establish the categories that have come to define our humanity. Analyzes how the Bible’s patterns of representation construct sexual and ethnic identities and naturalize ideas about such social institutions as “the family.” ENGL 3678, JWSS 3678, and WMNS 3678 are cross-listed.

ENGL 3685. From Kafka to Kushner: Modern and Contemporary Jewish Literature. 4 Hours.

Surveys Jewish literature from the late modern (1880–1948) and contemporary (1948–present) periods. Considers themes of immigration and cross-cultural influences and issues of religious, ethnic, and gender identity. Emphasizes American and European literatures to begin to define an international Jewish literary canon, including Yiddish poets and playwrights, Russian Jewish writers, and modern writers. ENGL 3685 and JWSS 3685 are cross-listed.

ENGL 3690. The City in Literature. 4 Hours.

Examines the urban experience as it has been depicted in selected literary texts. Discusses such themes as the city as a locus of evil, the city as a place of possibility, and the city as a center of art and an influence on creative form in an interdisciplinary fashion.

ENGL 3720. 19th-Century Major Figure. 4 Hours.

Examines in detail the work and critical reception of a major writer of the nineteenth century. May be repeated up to four times.

ENGL 3730. 20th- and 21st-Century Major Figure. 4 Hours.

Examines in detail the work and critical reception of a major writer of the twentieth or twenty-first century. May be repeated up to four times.

ENGL 3990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 3995. Practicum. 1-4 Hours.

Offers eligible students an opportunity for practical experience. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 4000. Topics in Early Literatures. 4 Hours.

Focuses on a particular aspect of medieval or Renaissance British literature, such as medieval romance or Renaissance representations of gender and sexuality. May be repeated up to five times.

ENGL 4010. Topics in Shakespeare. 4 Hours.

Examines a focused topic, theme, or critical approach to Shakespeare. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 4020. Topics in 17th- and 18th-Century Literatures. 4 Hours.

Focuses on a particular topic in 17th- or 18th-century British or American literature, such as women and the novel or the captivity narrative. May be repeated once.

ENGL 4040. Topics in 19th-Century Literatures. 4 Hours.

Focuses on a particular topic in 19th-century British or American literature, such as lyric poetry or popular print culture. May be repeated once.

ENGL 4060. Topics in 20th- and 21st-Century Literatures. 4 Hours.

Focuses on a particular topic in 20th- or 21st-century British or American literature, such as capitalism or the Harlem Renaissance. May be repeated once.

ENGL 4070. Topics in Genre. 4 Hours.

Explores the characteristics of a particular literary form over time through works by various authors. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 4080. Topics in Film. 4 Hours.

Studies a theme or problem (film and society, film and politics), a period in film history (American film from 1945 to the present), a film genre (the western, film noir), or a film director (Hitchcock, Coppola). May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 4100. Topics in Literary Criticism. 4 Hours.

Studies a specific problem, method, or school of literary criticism, such as poststructuralism or feminist criticism. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 4110. Topics in Rhetoric and Writing Studies. 4 Hours.

Focuses on a particular topic in rhetoric and writing studies, such as rhetorical education, technologies of literacy, or writing and identity. May be repeated once.

ENGL 4400. Opening the Archive. 4 Hours.

Offers a seminar designed to introduce students to the rich archival holdings in the greater Boston area and to offer training in the materials and methods of primary source research. Primary materials include a wide range of resources, including books, manuscripts, letters, pamphlets, broadsides, journals, maps, illustrations, photographs, etc., from the seventeenth through the twentieth centuries.

ENGL 4410. Research in Rhetoric and Writing. 4 Hours.

Introduces students to, and offers them practice in, a range of research methodologies (e.g., ethnography, archival research, historical inquiry) and methods (e.g., interviewing, observation, rhetorical analysis) for studying rhetoric, writing, and writers. Requires permission of instructor for freshmen and sophomores.

ENGL 4684. Topics in Postcolonial Literature. 4 Hours.

Focuses on a nation (e.g., the African/Nigerian novel, Indo-Anglian writing, Jamaican dub poetry), theme (e.g., women writers, cosmopolitanism, narrating the nation), or genre (e.g., magical realism, political drama, translation) in postcolonial literature. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 4688. Topics in Comparative Textual Studies. 4 Hours.

Explores topics that cross national boundaries or historical periods, such as print culture in the transatlantic world, black women writers, and visual rhetoric. May be repeated up to four times.

ENGL 4710. Capstone Seminar. 4 Hours.

Offers an advanced senior seminar organized around an important critical question in the discipline. This writing-intensive course is designed to be a summative experience for English majors, offering in-depth study of the theories, methods, and practices of critical work on a particular topic while providing students opportunities for reflecting on the connections between their capstone and other work they have done as majors. Offers students an opportunity to produce significant research projects on the critical issues raised by the seminar. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 4720. Capstone Project. 4 Hours.

Offers students an opportunity to design, develop, and complete a major intellectual project in a workshop setting. Students must enter this course with an approved project and the support of a faculty member in the relevant area of study. In addition to producing original research, offers students an opportunity to contextualize their work in relation to their focus within English studies, their experience of the major, and their intellectual and professional goals.

ENGL 4970. Junior/Senior Honors Project 1. 4 Hours.

Focuses on in-depth project in which a student conducts research or produces a product related to the student’s major field. Combined with Junior/Senior Project 2 or college-defined equivalent for 8 credit honors project. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 4971. Junior/Senior Honors Project 2. 4 Hours.

Focuses on second semester of in-depth project in which a student conducts research or produces a product related to the student’s major field. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 4990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 4991. Research. 4 Hours.

Offers an opportunity to conduct research under faculty supervision.

ENGL 4992. Directed Study. 1-4 Hours.

Offers independent work under the direction of members of the department on a chosen topic. Course content depends on instructor. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 4993. Independent Study. 1-4 Hours.

Offers independent work under the direction of members of the department on a chosen topic. Course content depends on instructor. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 4994. Internship. 4 Hours.

Offers students internships under the direction of a faculty member in such areas as publishing, education, or business and technical writing. Requires students to produce both a portfolio of professional work and a final paper reflecting on their internship experience. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 4995. Practicum. 1-4 Hours.

Offers eligible students an opportunity for practical experience. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 4996. Experiential Education Directed Study. 4 Hours.

Draws upon the student’s approved experiential activity and integrates it with study in the academic major. Restricted to those students who are using the course to fulfill their experiential education requirement. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 4997. Senior Thesis. 4 Hours.

Offers students an opportunity to prepare an undergraduate thesis under faculty supervision.

ENGL 5101. Critical Issues. 3 Hours.

Introduces the terms and discourses of literary theory as it is currently practiced and debated, and provides the historical context for such practices and debates.

ENGL 5102. Key Concepts in Rhetoric and Composition. 3 Hours.

Serves as an introduction to the fields of rhetoric and composition. Provides a foundational vocabulary for understanding the concerns of these fields by considering the history and current meanings of terms crucial to both, for example, “knowledge,” “authority,” “discourse,” “text,” “context,” and “argument.”.

ENGL 5103. Proseminar. 3 Hours.

Introduces the history and current scholarly practices of English studies. Surveys theoretical, methodological, and institutional issues in the development of the discipline; introduces students to the research of the English department’s graduate faculty; and offers opportunities for the practice of key components of scholarly production, including formulating research questions, using databases, conducting literature reviews, and writing and presenting scholarship in common formats other than the long research paper, such as conference proposals, oral presentations, and book reviews.

ENGL 5976. Directed Study. 1-4 Hours.

Offers independent work under the direction of members of the department on a chosen topic. Course content depends on instructor. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 5978. Independent Study. 1-4 Hours.

Offers independent work under the direction of members of the department on a chosen topic. Course content depends on instructor. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 5984. Research. 1-4 Hours.

Offers an opportunity to conduct research under faculty supervision. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 6960. Exam Preparation—Master’s. 0 Hours.

Offers the student the opportunity to prepare for the master’s qualifying exam under faculty supervision.

ENGL 6962. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 6966. Practicum. 1-4 Hours.

Provides eligible students with an opportunity for practical experience. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7000. Qualifying Exam. 0 Hours.

Provides eligible students with an opportunity to take the master’s qualifying exam.

ENGL 7111. Rhetorical Theory. 3 Hours.

Introduces major concepts, figures, and issues in rhetoric from the classical period to the present day. Explores theories about the scope of rhetoric, the nature of persuasion, and the relationship between language and knowledge.

ENGL 7112. Rhetorical Criticism. 3 Hours.

Trains students to analyze critically the rhetorical work of written and spoken texts, as well as other artifacts, discourses, and practices. Emphasizes prominent methods of rhetorical criticism, drawing on neo-Aristotelianism, genre theory, feminist studies, dramatism, and cultural studies. Introduces students to current debates in the field as well as to perennial issues, such as the purposes of criticism, the relationship between theory and practice, the interaction of text and context, and the role of the critic.

ENGL 7121. Composition Studies. 3 Hours.

Focuses on theories about writing, reading, and learning, and how these theories are played out in practice in often competing and contradictory ways. Examines and critiques the four paradigms that dominate composition theory and practice today: the classical model, the expressivist model, the cognitivist model, and the social-constructivist model.

ENGL 7123. Approaches to Teaching Writing. 3 Hours.

Considers several currently influential approaches to the teaching of writing in schools and colleges, with attention to differences not only in the practices they entail but in the theories and research that inform them.

ENGL 7201. Perspectives on American Literature. 3 Hours.

Attempts to discover or disrupt common themes and recurrent patterns in American literature through a close reading or a critique of primary texts.

ENGL 7202. African-American Literature. 3 Hours.

Focuses on the development of the traditions, critical paradigms, recurrent themes, and patterns of African-American literature through close readings of selected texts and critics. Considers such writers as Houston Baker, Jr., Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Frederick Douglass, Harriet Jacobs, William S. Braithwaite, Larry Neal, Ralph Ellison, Barbara Christian, Richard Wright, Ishmael Reed, Bell Hooks, and Audre Lorde.

ENGL 7206. American Literature and Culture 1. 3 Hours.

Examines early American cultural patterns as they emerge from a wide variety of texts including accounts of exploration and settlement; diaries; poetry; Native American oratory and sacred texts; slave, captivity, and witchcraft narratives; political tracts; novels; and letters. Emphasis is on how issues of colonialism, cross-cultural contact, race relations, and the rise of political and national consciousness affected literary art and rhetorical expression from 1492 to 1800.

ENGL 7207. American Literature and Culture 2. 3 Hours.

Focuses on American writing from 1800 to 1900, emphasizing the ways in which literary texts reflected, enacted, questioned, and controverted cultural assumptions and constructions in the period. Topics include nationalism and territorial expansion; libertarian ideology and such practices as slavery, limited citizenship, and restricted franchise; immigration and “nativism”; and industrialization and pastoralism.

ENGL 7211. Topics in American Literature. 3 Hours.

Explores a significant topic in American literature; for example, realism, humor, the frontier, southern writing, or ethnic American literature (Asian American, Native American, Latino/a and African American). May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7212. Topics in African-American Literature. 3 Hours.

Explores a topic, theme, or genre in depth in African-American literature, such as slave narratives, women writers, the Harlem Renaissance, autobiography, or contemporary writers. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7213. Topics in Early American Literature. 3 Hours.

Focuses on the work of one writer, a group of writers, or a theme or structure common to several writers-Jonathan Edwards, women writers, the poets of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, or typology, for example-in the first two hundred years of American literature. Topics change with time and demand. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7214. Topics in 19th-Century American Literature. 3 Hours.

Considers such literary and cultural topics as transcendentalism, the literature of the Civil War, slave narratives, women’s narratives, and the literature of social reform. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7215. Topics in 20th-Century American Literature. 3 Hours.

Examines an issue or issues in twentieth-century American literature, such as women in twentieth-century American writing; surrealism in modern and contemporary American poetry; naturalism and the city in the modern American novel; autobiography by American women writers of color; and race, ethnicity, and the oral tradition in ethnic American literature. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7221. Major American Novelist. 3 Hours.

Examines in detail the work of a major American novelist and its historical context and cultural milieu. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7222. Major American Playwright. 3 Hours.

Examines in detail the work of a major American playwright and its theatrical style and social impact-the work, for example, of Eugene O’Neill, Tennessee Williams, Lillian Hellman, Arthur Miller, Edward Albee, August Wilson, or Ntozake Shange. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7223. Major American Poet. 3 Hours.

Examines in detail the work of a single major American poet, placing it within its literary and cultural contexts. Some possible subjects are Whitman, Dickinson, Frost, Eliot, H.D., Williams, Hughes, Stevens, Lowell, Moore, Bishop, Merrill, and Ashbery. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7224. Major Figures in African-American Literature. 3 Hours.

Focuses on a major African-American novelist, poet, or dramatist, the existing criticism, and the author’s historical context and cultural milieu. Authors considered are Richard Wright, Toni Morrison, Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, Imamu Amiri Baraka, August Wilson, Lorraine Hansberry, Alice Walker, John Wideman, and Gloria Naylor. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7225. Individual American Writer. 3 Hours.

Offers topics to be announced. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7226. Individual Modern American Novelist. 3 Hours.

Examines in depth the work of a major figure in twentieth-century American fiction, focusing on the cultural context out of which he or she emerges. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7231. 19th-Century American Prose, 1820-1865. 3 Hours.

Focuses on the characteristics of the romantic movement and New England transcendentalism in the works of the principal prose writers of the period. Studies themes and techniques of such writers as Poe, Hawthorne, Melville, Emerson, Fuller, and Thoreau.

ENGL 7232. 19th-Century American Prose, 1865-1900. 3 Hours.

Covers the post–Civil War novel in America, including the realistic and naturalistic movements, and such authors as Twain, Howells, Henry James, Kate Chopin, and Edith Wharton. Includes some notable nonfiction writers, such as Henry Adams and William James.

ENGL 7233. 19th-Century American Poetry. 3 Hours.

Explores poetry written in the United States in the nineteenth century. Authors considered may include Dickinson and Whitman; New England poets including Whittier, Longfellow, Sigourney, and Holmes; and African-American poets, such as Frances Ellen Watkins Harper. Issues considered may include poetry and American literary nationalism; gender, sentimentalism, and poetry; and abolition and the Civil War in poetry.

ENGL 7241. Modern American Prose. 3 Hours.

Includes close examination of such prose forms as the essay, short story, autobiography, biography, history, and so on. May select writers with some special purpose in view, but focuses on those generally representative of the 1912-1950 period.

ENGL 7243. Modern American Drama. 3 Hours.

Analyzes philosophic and aesthetic trends among such playwrights as O’Neill, Williams, Miller, Albee, Hellman, and Simon.

ENGL 7244. African-American Novel. 3 Hours.

Surveys major nineteenth- or twentieth-century African-American novelists, such as Francis Harper, Charles Chestnutt, Zora Neale Hurston, Nella Larsen, Toni Morrison, Ralph Ellison, James Baldwin, and Ishmael Reed.

ENGL 7251. Contemporary American Fiction. 3 Hours.

Surveys major developments in American fiction of the period from roughly 1945 to the present against the cultural background of that period. Considers such categories as postmodernism, southern fiction, Jewish fiction, black fiction, women’s fiction, and multicultural fiction since the civil rights era, and such writers as Mailer, Kerouac, Welty, Malamud, Didion, Gaines, Silko, and Chin.

ENGL 7261. Medieval Literature. 3 Hours.

Offers a survey of the major works of the medieval period, excluding Chaucer. Focuses on texts in Middle English from the twelfth century through the fifteenth, and covers the range of available genres and forms including the short religious and secular lyric, debate poetry, the dream vision, religious prose, the romance, fifteenth-century Chaucerian imitations, and fifteenth-century ballads. The critical focus may include questions and problems of sources, influence, genre, voice, and the representation of the subject.

ENGL 7262. Renaissance Literature. 3 Hours.

Studies major prose, poetry, and dramatic literature by such authors as Erasmus, Wyatt, Surrey, More, Sidney, Marlow, Spenser, Raleigh, and Shakespeare.

ENGL 7263. 17th-Century Literature. 3 Hours.

Covers major prose, dramatic literature, and poetry of the seventeenth century including Bacon, Behn, Cavendish, Hobbes, Browne, Bunyan, Donne, Herbert, Jonson, Marvell, and others.

ENGL 7264. Restoration and Early 18th-Century Literature. 3 Hours.

Surveys drama, poetry, and criticism including Restoration theater, Dryden, Pope, Swift, Finch, Addison, Steele, and Gay.

ENGL 7266. Victorian Literature. 3 Hours.

Treats such topics as Victorian masculinities; female poetic identity; the move to aestheticism and decadence in the latter nineteenth century; and resemblances of the 1890s to our own fin-de-siècle. Considers such figures as R. Browning, E.B. Browning, Christina Rossetti, Florence Nightingale, Swinburne, Pater, Stevenson, Wilde, H.G. Wells, and Freud.

ENGL 7271. Chaucer. 3 Hours.

Focuses on the works of Chaucer in their late medieval settings; examines both the intertextual tradition that produced such texts as The Book of the Duchess, The Canterbury Tales, and Troilus and Criseyde, and the literary context in which Chaucerian texts have been and continue to be read. Critical issues may include questions of voice and persona, the relationship of author to text, the problems of influence and genre, and medieval views of race, class, and gender.

ENGL 7272. Shakespeare’s Tragedies. 3 Hours.

Investigates the question of genre and the critical debates surrounding the major tragedies. Plays studied include King Lear, Hamlet, and Macbeth.

ENGL 7273. Shakespeare’s Comedies. 3 Hours.

Considers Shakespeare’s three major types of comedy (comedy of action, festive comedy, and the problem comedies) and the comic impulse of the later romances.

ENGL 7274. Topics in Shakespeare. 3 Hours.

Addresses special issues, such as “Shakespeare on Film,” the hybrid material of the history plays, and his nondramatic works (sonnets “Rape of Lucrece” and “Venus and Adonis”). May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7275. Milton. 3 Hours.

Presents Milton’s poetic and intellectual achievement through analysis of his major work. Emphasizes Paradise Lost as an expression of Renaissance thought and the culmination of the epic tradition.

ENGL 7281. Topics in Medieval Literature. 3 Hours.

May consider the following: Anglo Saxon literature (including poems such as Beowulf, Judith, The Wanderer, The Seafarer, and a selection of prose); the poems of the Pearl Poet (Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Pearl, Cleanness); women and/in the Middle Ages; medieval literature and medievalism; the medieval romance, Malory’s Morte Darthur; religious, mystical, and didactic works; medieval travel literature; or William Langland’s Piers Plowman. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7282. Topics in Renaissance Literature. 3 Hours.

Considers specific topics in the literature of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, such as the sonnet sequence, Renaissance women, and utopian and travel literature. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7283. Topics in 17th-Century Literature. 3 Hours.

Considers specific topics in literature from 1600 to approximately 1700, such as metaphysical and religious poetry, the rise of the novel, and drama. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7284. Topics in 18th-Century Literature. 3 Hours.

Explores in depth a topic, theme, or genre in eighteenth-century British literature, such as satire; London’s city culture; literary theory; the emerging women writers; the essay; or a major writer, for example, Jonathan Swift, Jane Austen, or Henry Fielding. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7285. Topics in Romanticism. 3 Hours.

Explores a topic, theme, or genre in Romantic literature, such as Romantic autobiography or Romantic conceptions of the poet; may also explore intensively the work of one major British writer of the Romantic era. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7286. Topics in Victorian Literature. 3 Hours.

Offers a focus on special topics such as gender issues, the 1890s, Victorian fantasy, and science fiction. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7287. Topics in 20th-Century British Literature. 3 Hours.

Examines the cultural contexts that produced twentieth-century British literature; the representation of gender, race, and class; and the modern, the postmodern, and the postcolonial. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7291. 18th-Century Novel. 3 Hours.

Focuses on Behn, Defoe, Fielding, Richardson, Walpole, Sterne, Beckford, and Austen.

ENGL 7292. Romantic Poetry. 3 Hours.

Surveys representative forms and works of the major poets of the English Romantic Period (1798-1832): Blake, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Byron, Shelley, Keats, and representative women writers, such as Baille, Barbauld, and Hemans. Studies poetry in the historical and intellectual context of its time.

ENGL 7293. Victorian Poetry. 3 Hours.

Focuses on Tennyson, R. Browning, E.B. Browning, Arnold, Christina Rossetti, D.G. Rossetti, Swinburne, and Hopkins, with emphasis on issues of gender, poetic form, and the movement toward modernism.

ENGL 7294. Victorian Novel. 3 Hours.

Explores the Victorian novel emphasizing recent critical approaches (for example, gender studies, new historicist, or psychoanalytic). Considers such figures as C. Bronte, E. Bronte, Dickens, Eliot, Gaskell, Trollope, and Hardy. .

ENGL 7295. 20th-Century British Drama. 3 Hours.

Explores the evolution of British drama from Shaw to Tom Stoppard, emphasizing the influence of Ibsen and later European dramatists; the Irish influence of Yeats, Synge, and O’Casey; the traumas of two world wars; and the steady growth in the variety and power of British dramatic productions. Also considers such writers as Samuel Beckett, John Osborne, Harold Pinter, and Caryl Churchill.

ENGL 7296. 20th-Century British Fiction. 3 Hours.

Explores twentieth-century British fiction, emphasizing recent critical approaches (feminist, postcolonial, or narratological). Considers such figures as Forster, Conrad, Lawrence, Woolf, Lessing, E. Waugh, Rushdie, Byatt, Carter, Murdock, and Naipaul.

ENGL 7303. Creative Writing Workshop. 3 Hours.

Comprises advanced work in creative writing.

ENGL 7311. Linguistics. 3 Hours.

Examines how linguists have begun to map out the part of our mental space devoted to language. Their inquiry centers on several questions: What do people know when they know a language? How does that knowledge get there? How is it organized? This course concentrates on all three. Explores some of the rules that we unconsciously follow as language users, which results in a new way of thinking about language. With this new perspective, we move on to issues that are often the topic of social and political debates: gender in language, dialects (for instance, Boston English, Chicano English, and African-American English or Ebonics), standards and attitudes, and nature vs. nurture, among others.

ENGL 7312. Syntax. 3 Hours.

Explores how speakers of a language know a remarkable range of subtle facts about their language, facts that they were never explicitly taught. For instance, in the sentence, “Betty talked to Wilma about herself,” herself is ambiguous (it can be Betty or Wilma). But in “Betty expected Wilma to talk about herself,” herself can refer only to Wilma. Why should this be? The difference comes from the subtle rules that underlie every speaker’s ability to speak and understand their native language. Examines just what these rules look like, and how we come to know them. Through weekly readings and problem sets, students begin to map out their own “mental grammar,” the system that forms their unconscious knowledge of language.

ENGL 7313. Semantics. 3 Hours.

Investigates the realm of meaning in language, and explores the different accounts for how we understand words and are able to use them to create complex meanings. What does a word mean, and how do we know what it means? Part of the course considers meaning at the word level: how can we define words and what relationships hold between sets of words? Another part examines meaning at the sentence level: sentential ambiguity, relations between sentences, and how the whole meaning of a sentence can be understood. A third part focuses on language at the discourse level, looking at the ways that language can be used directly or indirectly to accomplish speech acts.

ENGL 7321. Topics in Linguistics. 3 Hours.

Offers varied topics and may focus on one or more of the core areas in linguistics: syntax, semantics, morphology, and phonology. Or it may focus on other areas, such as the lexicon, dialect, metaphor, language acquisition, prescriptive grammar, or language and society. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7322. Linguistics and Literature. 3 Hours.

Introduces stylistics, the study of formal properties of poetry and prose. Considers general questions: Are there constraints on creativity? What relationship holds between form and meaning? What is the nature of metaphor? How can we characterize author style, genre style? Analyzes texts of representative major writers for linguistic features. Focuses on how linguistic methods can contribute to critical response.

ENGL 7323. Linguistics and Writing. 3 Hours.

Explores topics in textuality and text cohesion, distinguishing unified text from a string of unrelated sentences. Studies lexical, semantic, and syntactic cohesion, paragraph patterning, and information flow. Analyzes diverse nonfictional prose selections for style features. Considers expressive, persuasive, scientific, informative, and exploratory forms of discourse.

ENGL 7324. History of the English Language. 3 Hours.

Traces the development of English using linguistic readings and historical documents (letters, journals, or literary selections) from various periods and representing a range of styles (formal to informal). Studies changes in the sound system, inflectional system, vocabulary, and syntax of English, as well as the development of prose style. Considers issues in language change: the influence of foreign invasion, relocation, dialect dominance, and literacy.

ENGL 7325. Issues in English Grammar. 3 Hours.

Explores how as native speakers of a language we manipulate a vast number of symbols, as each day we make up and understand a stream of brand-new sentences. This effortless and completely unconscious ability depends on a set of unconscious rules, a linguistic system called the “mental grammar.” Investigates what this grammar looks like in an attempt to understand the basics of how language works. Our focus is on three areas: syntax (sentence structure), morphology (word structure), and phonology (sound structure). Part of each class has a “workshop” format with a slant toward “doing” linguistics: working with data, analyzing it, and ultimately explaining it.

ENGL 7326. Gender and Language. 3 Hours.

Considers language as a reflector of social practice and as a means of influence and expression of power. Through a review of current research, explores such questions as is language inherently biased? Do men and women use language differently? Covers speech styles, patterns of conversational interaction, and language use in institutional settings: the courtroom, the doctor’s office, the business meeting, the TV talk show, the university classroom. Reviews material from diverse fields including politics, advertising, news media, and literature.

ENGL 7331. Film Studies. 3 Hours.

Introduces the basic methods of film analysis, the history of cinema, and recent theoretical debates within film studies. Provides familiarity with ways of analyzing films in terms of editing, shot composition, framing, mise-en-scène, and the like, with the historical changes in Hollywood and in international cinema, and with such current theories as structuralism and semiotics.

ENGL 7332. Topics in Film. 3 Hours.

Focuses on some specific dimension of film studies-a genre of film, such as film noir, a director like Alfred Hitchcock or Francis Ford Coppola, a film movement like expressionism or social realism, or a particular historical moment in film history, such as post-1967 Hollywood. Topics chosen determine texts and films. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7333. American Film. 3 Hours.

Offers a history of American film from the beginnings to the present. Pays particular attention to the way we negotiate social norms and values, reproduce or contest dominant ideologies, and represent (or fail to represent) their historical movement. Considers films from Birth of a Nation to Citizen Kane to The Godfather to Thelma and Louise.

ENGL 7334. Contemporary Film. 3 Hours.

Offers a survey of contemporary film, both American and international. Studies the major new developments in film, from the new ethnic filmmaking to the recent turn to gender and sexuality. Also engages some of the central critical and theoretical issues and debates in film studies, from spectatorship to postmodernism. A large part of the course is devoted to the analysis of visual and narrative form and to the link between form and meaning.

ENGL 7341. Contemporary Critical Theory. 3 Hours.

Introduces the study of modern and contemporary literary theory and criticism including “New Critical,” Marxist, feminist, psychoanalytic, structuralist, poststructuralist, phenomenological, and other approaches.

ENGL 7342. Topics in Criticism. 3 Hours.

Examines such topics in critical theory as narrative, cultural criticism, representation, reader response, feminist theory, postcolonial studies, and comparative literature. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7351. Topics in Literary Study. 3 Hours.

Focuses on literature on a thematic, formal, or generic basis. May include black women writers, poetry of nature. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7352. Topics in Genre. 3 Hours.

Examines such topics in genre criticism as biography, autobiography, satire, and children’s literature. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7353. Topics in Fiction. 3 Hours.

Examines such subjects as short fiction, the romance, and the short-story cycle. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7354. Topics in Drama. 3 Hours.

Examines such subjects as tragic drama, comic drama, and absurdist drama. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7355. Topics in Poetry. 3 Hours.

Examines such subjects as epic poetry, the lyric, poetry of the seasons, and confessional poetry. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7356. Topics in Nonfiction Prose. 3 Hours.

Examines writings in nonfiction prose in such areas as biography, history, science, and technology. Varies according to the design of the instructor. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7357. Topics in Literary Relations. 3 Hours.

Explores relations among national literatures. Covers such subjects as modernism in England and America, and romanticism in nineteenth-century England and America. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7358. Topics in Literature and other Disciplines. 3 Hours.

Examines such subjects as literature and the visual arts, literature and psychology, and literary impressionism. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7359. Topics in Comparative Literature. 3 Hours.

Offers topics to be announced. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7360. Topics in Rhetoric. 3 Hours.

Focuses on specialized topics in rhetoric, such as visual rhetoric, rhetorical criticism, rhetoric of science, issues in contemporary rhetorical theory, and rhetoric and cultural studies. Varies by semester. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7361. Modern Poetry. 3 Hours.

Examines the themes, techniques, and cultural contexts of modern American and British poetry, 1900-1950. Considers a range of representative poets and poems; such “movements” as imagism, proletarian poetry, and the Harlem Renaissance; such practices as collage poetics; and such issues as canon formation and the intersections of modernism and postmodernism.

ENGL 7362. Contemporary Poetry. 3 Hours.

Examines the themes, techniques, and cultural contexts of postmodern American and British poetry, 1950 to the present. Considers a range of representative poets and poems; such groups as Beat, neosurrealist, African-American, and L-A-N-G-U-A-G-E poets; such practices as field composition and performance poetry; and such issues as appropriation and the intersections of modernism and postmodernism.

ENGL 7370. Topics in Digital Humanities. 3 Hours.

Focuses on theoretical and methodological intersections among technology, computation, humanities research, and pedagogy. May cover topics such as multimodal scholarly composition, “new” and “old” media, public humanities, text encoding, text mining, digital archives, humanities tool building, geospatial analysis, topic modeling, and network mapping. Content varies by semester. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7379. Ethnography. 3 Hours.

Introduces a diverse set of methods, including observation and interviewing, for understanding humans in social and cultural contexts. Topics range from the nuts and bolts of designing and implementing a project to responding to the crisis of representation. Students conduct an ethnographic study and read ethnographies in anthropology and in their fields of interest. Is geared to teachers preparing to conduct classroom observations, technical communicators studying how people interact with documents and technologies, or anyone interested in ethnography as a research method and representational practice.

ENGL 7391. Reading and the Teaching of Reading. 3 Hours.

Provides teachers with the opportunity to develop a coherent theory of reading instruction coordinated with teaching writing. Recommended for teachers who have previously taken a course in the theory and teaching of writing.

ENGL 7392. Writing and the Teaching of Writing. 3 Hours.

Examines the theory and practice of writing and teaching writing. Required for stipended graduate assistants (SGAs) in their first year.

ENGL 7393. Writing and Learning Across Curriculum. 6 Hours.

Explores in depth how writing may be used to promote thinking and learning across a wide variety of disciplines. Intended primarily for high school and college instructors in the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences. Usually given only through the Institute on Writing and Teaching at Martha’s Vineyard.

ENGL 7394. Writing Programs in Schools and Colleges. 3 Hours.

Examines both the nature of writing programs in schools and colleges and the issues that curricular changes raise for these institutions. Intended for English teachers on all levels who wish to become composition leaders in their schools. Usually given only through the Institute on Writing and Teaching at Martha’s Vineyard. Requires extensive course work in composition theory and practice.

ENGL 7395. Topics in Writing. 3 Hours.

May include the following topics: literacy and literacies; basic writing; issues of gender, race, and class in the classroom; writing assessment; or collaborative learning. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7396. Composition Pedagogy. 3 Hours.

Examines exemplary theory, research, and practice in the teaching of writing. Considers such topics as the writing process, the role of reading in the writing classroom, development and assessment, and teaching in a diverse society.

ENGL 7397. Responding to Learners. 3 Hours.

Examines and puts into practical use a variety of methods of analyzing writing. Studies both professional and student writing. Provides the tools for analyzing and improving student writing, assessing the writing of their students, and designing appropriate writing assignments and activities. Provides an opportunity to begin the development of an integrated writing curriculum from the elementary to the college level.

ENGL 7398. Writing and Reading in Content Areas. 3 Hours.

Examines some characteristic student and professional writing in the humanities, sciences, and social sciences. Attempts to help participants see how students can use writing as a way of knowing and learning, not just in the English class but, for example, in the biology, history, or even mathematics class. Usually given only through the Institute on Writing and Teaching at Martha’s Vineyard.

ENGL 7603. Designing Teacher Research. 2 Hours.

Prepares participants for research to be conducted in ENGL 7663 during the academic year at the home institution. Examines some published case studies of teaching and writings, and explores relevant methods of data analysis, observation techniques, interview and questionnaire construction, sampling procedures, experimental design, and writing protocol analysis. Usually given only through the Institute on Writing and Teaching at Martha’s Vineyard.

ENGL 7663. Teacher-Research Fieldwork. 3 Hours.

Allows participants to conduct the independent research planned in ENGL 7603. Provides resources available for this research at the home institution including the participants’ individual teaching practices, course or departmental curriculum, the writing of their students and of students in other classes, the practices of other teachers and administrators, as well as published books, reports, and articles on composition. Provides for student to collect, collate, and interpret data according to the guidelines established at the institute and then prepare a project in which they present their findings. Usually given only through the Institute on Writing and Teaching at Martha’s Vineyard.

ENGL 7671. Teacher-Research Final Project. 1 Hour.

Provides for participants who have prepared ENGL 7603 projects to present their findings, draw their conclusions, and discuss the implications of their research for further study. Guides participants in the ENGL 7603 and ENGL 7663 sequence. Usually given only through the Institute on Writing and Teaching at Martha’s Vineyard.

ENGL 7962. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7976. Directed Study. 1-4 Hours.

Offered by arrangement. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7978. Independent Study. 1-4 Hours.

Offers independent work under the direction of members of the department on a chosen topic. Course content depends on instructor. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7990. Thesis. 3 Hours.

Offers thesis supervision by members of the department. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 7996. Thesis Continuation. 0 Hours.

Offers thesis supervision by members of the department.

ENGL 8405. Directed Research Project. 3 Hours.

Offers independent work under the direction of members of the department on chosen topics. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 8406. Directed Writing Project. 3 Hours.

Offers independent work under the direction of members of the department on chosen topics. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 8407. Teaching Practicum. 1 Hour.

Gives students the opportunity to observe a senior faculty member teaching an undergraduate course in American or British literature, literary studies, rhetoric, composition studies, or linguistics. Students meet regularly with the faculty member to discuss teaching practices and other pedagogical issues and submit a term project discussing the experience in the context of the scholarship of teaching. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 8960. Exam Preparation—Doctoral. 0 Hours.

Offers the student the opportunity to prepare for the PhD qualifying exam under faculty supervision.

ENGL 8966. Practicum. 1-4 Hours.

Provides eligible students with an opportunity for practical experience. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 8982. Readings. 1-4 Hours.

Offers selected readings under the supervision of a faculty member. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 8984. Research. 1-4 Hours.

Offers an opportunity to conduct research under faculty supervision. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 9000. PhD Candidacy Achieved. 0 Hours.

Indicates successful completion of the doctoral comprehensive exam.

ENGL 9984. Research. 1-4 Hours.

Offers an opportunity to conduct research under faculty supervision. May be repeated without limit.

ENGL 9986. Research. 0 Hours.

Offers the student the opportunity to conduct full-time research. May be repeated up to three times.

ENGL 9990. Dissertation. 0 Hours.

Offers dissertation supervision by members of the department. May be repeated once.

ENGL 9996. Dissertation Continuation. 0 Hours.

Offers dissertation supervision by members of the department. May be repeated without limit.