Heather Streets-Salter, PhD
Associate Professor and Chair

249 Meserve Hall
617.373.2661 (fax)
Kirsten Bilas, Administrative Assistant, k.bilas@northeastern.edu

History at Northeastern emphasizes the study of local and regional histories as well as of the global exchanges between nations, regions, and cultures. Knowledge of the past is also about building the future. In a world marked by increasing exchange between peoples, cultures, and societies, history is key to understanding contemporary issues such as the future of democracy, the nature of citizenship and rights, the origins and conduct of war, the foundations of racial and ethnic conflict and tolerance, and poverty and prosperity. At the same time, history teaches crucial skills in analytical thinking, research processes, writing, oral expression, and multimedia presentation.

History majors take three core seminars on historical research and choose from a broad range of courses in historical themes, periods, and regions. Students focus their studies by establishing a cluster of four courses in a particular geographical area, time period, or theme. The program emphasizes undergraduate research in the major and trains students to conduct research in archives and primary sources and to write research papers. Honors study is strongly encouraged for eligible students, and students are encouraged to take advantage of numerous options for study abroad. Advanced undergraduates have the opportunity to participate in individual directed study with members of the faculty on topics of mutual interest.

Cooperative education placements, fieldwork, internships, and other experiential learning activities are also available. History majors have worked on co-op in law firms, an art auction house, the State Department, the Massachusetts State House, Newton Public Schools, and the Massachusetts State Archives, among many other institutions.

Undergraduates who plan to teach in public schools may combine history with education courses that can lead to state certification in Massachusetts. History students are also encouraged to take Dialogue of Civilizations courses that engage students in short-term study abroad during the summer.

The Department of History offers a broad-based Bachelor of Arts major and two Bachelor of Science options. One BS option emphasizes training in disciplines outside history. It includes the study of research methods and a minor in fields such as English; economics; political science; sociology; cinema studies; East Asian studies; or women’s, gender, and sexuality studies. The other BS option seeks to prepare students for public history fields such as museum administration, archival management, or historic preservation. The Department of History participates in numerous interdisciplinary programs, including East Asian studies; cinema studies; environmental studies; international affairs; Jewish studies; Latino/a, Latin American, and Caribbean studies; and women’s, gender, and sexuality studies.

The Department of History offers qualified undergraduates the opportunity to pursue a BA/MA or BS/MA degree in five years, with the approval of the department. Students with a minimum 3.330 cumulative grade-point average (GPA) and minimum 3.500 GPA in required history courses may apply for admission to the PlusOne BA/MA or BS/MA program in history.

Academic Progression Standards

Same as university-wide standards described under “Academic Status.”

Preapproved Template Program in History

The Department of History offers a preapproved template program that may be paired with another preapproved template program to create a combined major; to see a list of current preapproved template programs, visit the combined majors webpage.

Students may request admission to such a combined major via the Combined Major Approval form, which requires approval by both disciplines/colleges together with an approved curriculum. For additional information on preapproved template programs, see “Student-Requested Combined Major.” For template program requirements, visit the myNEU web portal, click on the “Self-Service” tab, then on “My Degree Audit.”

PlusOne Program (MA) in History

History majors at the end of their sophomore year or the beginning of their junior year may qualify for application to the PlusOne program that combines the BA with the master’s degree in history. Students interested in this option should consult with the departmental advisor, Marty Blatt (m.blatt@northeastern.edu), by the end of the sophomore year.

History Courses

HIST 1000. History at Northeastern. 1 Hour.

Intended for first-year students in the College of Social Sciences and Humanities. Seeks to introduce first-year students to the liberal arts in general, to familiarize them with their history major, to provide grounding in the culture and values of the university community, and to help them develop interpersonal skills.

HIST 1110. Introduction to World History. 4 Hours.

Emphasizes large-scale patterns, long-term changes, and interconnections of world history. Provides a different way of looking at the past than national histories, one that is appropriate for the increasing globalization and multiculturalism of today’s world. The course may begin as early as the first settled towns or written documents, the appearance of the first humanoid species, or even the beginning of the universe. Examines the great continuities and changes that have brought us to where we are today. Explores links between global processes and individual experiences through primary documents, autobiographies, and stories.

HIST 1120. Public History, Public Memory. 4 Hours.

Explores the politics surrounding the creation and consumption of history outside the classroom. Draws on contemporary debates over memorials, museum displays, television and film, and other popular sources of historical information to answer the questions: How does memory become history? How, where, and why do people encounter and interpret history outside of the classroom? Why are certain versions of the past so controversial? Through readings, discussion, field trips, and assignments, offers students an opportunity to gain a deeper understanding of public history’s challenges and opportunities and to develop more informed opinions about its philosophical, ethical, and practical aspects.

HIST 1130. Introduction to the History of the United States. 4 Hours.

Engages with the major issues in U.S. history. Topics include the interaction of native populations with European settlers, the American Revolution and the Constitution, slavery, the Civil War, industrialization and migration, the growth of government and rise of the welfare state, media and mass culture, struggles for civil rights and liberation, and America’s role in the world from independence to the Iraq wars.

HIST 1131. Recitation for HIST 1130. 0 Hours.

Provides small-group discussion format to cover material in HIST 1130.

HIST 1140. Introduction to African-American History. 4 Hours.

Surveys the development of African Americans in the United States from their African background to the present. Covers medieval and early modern societies in West and Central Africa; the transatlantic slave trade; the evolution of slavery from the colonial period through the Civil War; free blacks; Reconstruction; migration; civil rights; and black nationalism. Considers gender relations throughout the entire period and emphasizes how an historical perspective helps to inform discussions of contemporary issues.

HIST 1150. East Asian Studies. 4 Hours.

Seeks to provide an understanding of the constituent characteristics that originally linked East Asia as a region and the nature of the transformations that have occurred in the region over the last two thousand years. Concentrates on China and Japan, and addresses Korea and Vietnam where possible. Also seeks to provide students with effective interdisciplinary analytical skills as well as historical, ethical, cultural diversity, and aesthetic perspectives. ASNS 1150 and HIST 1150 are cross-listed.

HIST 1170. Europe: Empires, Revolutions, Wars, and Their Aftermath. 4 Hours.

Examines major themes in the history of Europe from 1500 to the present, emphasizing the conceptual tools historians use to think about European history, and drawing on historical documents, literature, and film. Examines the emergence of states and nations as theoretical constructs and political realities; men’s and women’s experience of social conflict-rebellions, revolutions, and wars-and the complex relationships between Europeans and non-Europeans. Attention is given to how race, class, and gender shaped the way people made and understood their history.

HIST 1171. Recitation for HIST 1170. 0 Hours.

Provides small-group discussion format to cover material in HIST 1170.

HIST 1180. African History. 4 Hours.

Explores the history of the African continent from 1000 C.E. to the present era. Topics include medieval kingdoms (Ghana, Mali, Songhai, Zimbabwe, the city-states of East Africa, and the Kongo kingdom); slave trades (Indian Ocean, trans-Saharan, and transatlantic); the partition of Africa and European colonization; and the decolonization process. Emphasizes the interactions of African peoples with the rest of the world, particularly the relations between Africa and Europe after 1500 C.E.

HIST 1185. Introduction to Middle Eastern History. 4 Hours.

Relies on historical and literary sources, as well as such other cultural artifacts as architecture and photography, and focuses on interaction and changing relations and perceptions between Europe and the Middle East. Surveys the major political and economic events that have linked the trajectory of both civilizations, as well as broad patterns of human activity, such as migrations, conversions, and, cultural exchange. Emphasizes the commonality of encounters, and analyzes the construction of an “other” and its enduring legacy in modern times.

HIST 1187. Introduction to Latin American History. 4 Hours.

Surveys major themes in Latin American history from the arrival of the first human inhabitants until the present through a diversity of primary and secondary sources. Examines the social, cultural, political, and economic transformations that shaped Latin America during this period. Emphasizes how concepts of race, class, gender, and sexuality informed these changes and the people’s experiences of them. Topics include migration, colonialism and postcolonialism, war and revolution, slavery and abolition, nationalism and nation building, democracy and despotism, urbanization, modernization, religion, imperialism and underdevelopment, human rights, drug policy and international relations, labor, the arts, popular culture, and the environment.

HIST 1189. Introduction to South Asian History. 4 Hours.

Investigates the history of modern India and the debates surrounding the histories of the south Asian subcontinent. Examines topics such as the Mughal dynasties, the British Raj, the Indian nationalist movement, the influence of Mahatma Gandhi, independence, the partition of India into the new states of India and Pakistan, post–1947 India, and the effects of globalization and development initiatives in the Indian subcontinent. Engages themes that include colonialism, resistance, gender, social organization, religion, nationalism, development, and diaspora. Addresses popular conceptions of India as it has been represented in the West over time. Also draws upon Indian popular culture, literature, film, music, and media.

HIST 1190. Picturing Modernity: The Photographic Image in Culture and Society. 4 Hours.

Explores the role of the photographic image in culture and society from the early nineteenth century to the present day. Examines how the photographic image has altered cultural and perceptual patterns across the globe and investigates how cultural and social power have been influenced by photographs. Offers students an opportunity to read a cross-section of criticism, theory, and history and to study images and exhibitions to analyze how culture and history have been affected by and reflected in photographic images.

HIST 1200. Historical Research and Writing. 1 Hour.

Offered in conjunction with HIST 1201. Introduces incoming history freshmen to the history major in the context of other disciplines within the college and University. Offers students an opportunity to learn and to practice methods and conventions of research and historical writing.

HIST 1201. First-Year Seminar. 4 Hours.

Provides an introduction to historical methods, research, writing, and argument in which all students produce a substantial research project that passes through at least two revisions, and that is presented publicly to other members of the colloquium.

HIST 1206. Drug Trade and Drug War: History, Security, Culture. 4 Hours.

Analyzes the role of drugs in world history. From the early use of stimulants such as coca and sugar to the “war on drugs” and narco-terrorism, the course examines drugs as commodities in the world economy. Focuses primarily on opiates, stimulants, and hallucinogens from the nineteenth century to the present, considering how changing social and cultural mores led different drugs to be coded as licit and illicit. Topics include traditional uses, early medical use, trade networks, prohibition, black market, and drug cultures, as well as the role of drugs in the histories of industrialization, imperialism, and cold war geopolitics. Sources include historical scholarship, declassified intelligence reports, documentaries, novels, movies, songs, and art.

HIST 1212. History of Race. 4 Hours.

Explores the creation, modification, and clash of racial identities in the modern world. Shows the worldwide patterns of racial discrimination and reform in the past three centuries, and how they are changing today. Discusses development of racial categories and ideas and practices in racial mixing. Explores racial desegregation and persecution, and campaigns against racial discrimination. Includes background on human evolution and debates on the origins and meaning of physical differences among humans.

HIST 1213. History of Violence. 4 Hours.

Traces the global history of violence since the late Middle Ages. Topics include the Inquisition, the European witch craze, revolution, pornography, violent crime and punishment, media violence, lynch law, racism, genocide, war, torture, gender violence, and terrorism. Explores the modern emergence of a popular culture of violence, approaching themes from the perspectives of perpetrators, victims, and bystanders alike.

HIST 1215. Origins of Today: Historical Roots of Contemporary Issues. 4 Hours.

Focuses on the historical roots of four pressing contemporary issues with global implications. Our world has grown increasingly complex and interconnected, and the planet’s diverse peoples are facing common problems that have tremendous impact on the immediate future. They are (1) globalization, from its origins in the sixteenth century to the present; (2) the potential for global pandemics to alter the course of history, from bubonic plague in the fifth century to H1N1; (3) racial inequality, from religious interpretations in the early modern period to science in the modern era; and (4) gender inequality, from the agricultural revolution forward. For each issue, studies cases and locations spread across the world, examines the links between past and present, and attempts to identify ways forward.

HIST 1218. Pirates, Planters, and Patriots: Making the Americas, 1492–1804. 4 Hours.

Seeks to challenge students to understand more than the outlines of American history—Pilgrims, patriots, plantations— in the broader contexts of events that unfolded in and around the Atlantic Ocean in the Americas, Europe, and Africa. Covers Columbus’s first landing in the Caribbean to the Haitian declaration of independence in 1804 and includes the Atlantic trade, piracy, slavery and other forms of labor, cultural and ecological exchange, and independence and emancipation.

HIST 1225. Gender, Race, and Medicine. 4 Hours.

Examines the basic tenets of “scientific objectivity” and foundational scientific ideas about race, sex, and gender and what these have meant for marginalized groups in society, particularly when they seek medical care. Introduces feminist science theories ranging from linguistic metaphors of the immune system, to the medicalization of race, to critiques of the sexual binary. Emphasizes contemporary as well as historical moments to trace the evolution of “scientific truth” and its impact on the U.S. cultural landscape. Offers students an opportunity to develop the skills to critically question what they “know” about science and the scientific process and revisit their disciplinary training as a site for critical analysis. AFAM 1225, HIST 1225, and WMNS 1225 are cross-listed.

HIST 1228. Americans in the World: Trade, Travel, and Diplomacy. 4 Hours.

Offers a broad introduction to the history of the United States and the global world. Explores the United States within a larger framework of world historical events and activities, examining connections between local and global histories. Drawing on historical and literary sources as well as print, film, and other media sources, this course surveys the global United States and the political, social, cultural, and economic relationships that shaped its development. Topics include colonialism and imperialism; industrialization and globalization; war, independence, and national movements; and racial and gendered identities and politics.

HIST 1229. Military History of the United States. 4 Hours.

Examines the role of the military in the development of the United States. Begins with the arrival of Europeans and the ensuing conflicts with Native Americans as well as the colonial wars and the American Revolution. Reviews the constitutional foundations for the military and the creation of a regular army, including the establishment of West Point. Focuses on the War of 1812 and the Mexican War followed by an in-depth analysis of the Civil War and its aftermath. Covers America’s rise to world power status and the role of the military in this process. Surveys the twentieth century with particular emphasis on World War II, the Cold War, and the military’s role in nontraditional environments, including peacekeeping and terrorism.

HIST 1230. Contemporary America. 4 Hours.

Covers the emergence of the politics of dissent; thawing of the Cold War; military adventures in Asia, the Middle East, and the Balkans; decline of the presidency; growth of electronic media; and changes in race, gender, and class.

HIST 1233. The United States: Revolution to Reconstruction. 4 Hours.

Examines patterns of social, cultural, economic, political, and diplomatic history of the United States to 1877.

HIST 1234. United States since 1877. 4 Hours.

Examines patterns of social, cultural, economic, political, and diplomatic history of the United States from 1877 to the present.

HIST 1239. History of American Education in World Perspective. 4 Hours.

Examines, in a comparative context, the expansion of public education from the passage of compulsory schooling laws to the establishment of the multiuniversity, the impacts of desegregation, the revival of home schooling, and the problems facing American education today. Gives attention to views that common schooling and land-grant colleges were part of the larger movement to extend democracy. Examines challenges to these propositions.

HIST 1246. World War II in the Pacific. 4 Hours.

Studies World War II, the most devastating war in history, which began in Asia and had a great long-term impact there. Using historical and literary texts, examines the causes, decisive battles, and lingering significance of the conflict on both sides of the Pacific.

HIST 1252. Japanese Literature and Culture. 4 Hours.

Explores major works of Japanese fiction and poetry in historical and cultural context. All readings are in English translation.

HIST 1253. History of Vietnam Wars. 4 Hours.

Presents a history of military conflicts on the Indochinese peninsula from its precolonial settlement, internal developments and divisions, its stormy relationship with China, French colonization and the resistance to it, the rise of the Viet Minh during World War II, the postwar struggle against the French, the impact of the Cold War, and the involvement of the United States after 1950 in the creation of two Vietnams and in the conflict that engulfed it and its neighbors, Laos and Cambodia, in the decades that followed. Emphasizes the roles of nationalism and communism in the twentieth-century conflicts and the motives for American intervention. Films revealing the reactions of Americans to the escalating conflict are shown and evaluated.

HIST 1254. Mao’s China and After. 4 Hours.

Assesses the impact of the Chinese Communist Revolution of 1949 on state-societal relations. Focuses on the efforts during the Mao era to transform Chinese society through social mobilization campaigns, political culture, industrialization, and rural collectivization. Examines the impact of the Economic Reform Era policies, paying close attention to the rise of a consumer culture, the development of a legal system, and the heightened tensions between the dominant Han Chinese population and the minorities, especially in Tibet and Xinjiang.

HIST 1256. Chinese Civilization in Her Eyes. 4 Hours.

Presents an historical analysis of gender dynamics and roles in China from late imperial times to the present. Examines notions of masculinity and femininity in Confucian culture, patriarchal practices including foot binding, chastity arches, and arranged marriages, and the ways in which the Chinese empire becomes feminized in the eyes of its elite as a result of Western intrusions. Explores women’s efforts to acquire “personhood” and the rights of citizens during the period of nation building and to negotiate state regulatory powers over their labor, sexuality, and reproduction in recent times.

HIST 1259. Women in Jewish Culture. 4 Hours.

Uses some of the tools of contemporary feminist theory and methodology to focus on questions about the resurgence of ethnic/religious identities in the United States and the meaning of this for contemporary Jewish women. Analyzes the changing relationship of women to Judaism by trying to recover Jewish women’s experiences in America since the turn of the century. Accomplishes this by looking at some key institutions-work, family, religion, the feminist movement, the media, literature, and film.

HIST 1260. Modern Latin America. 4 Hours.

Traces the developments in this region since independence and the inception of nationhood. Topics include state formation and society in the nineteenth century; economic development and underdevelopment in the region; race, class, and ideology; United States/Latin American relations; populism; the roots of revolution and authoritarianism; and the contemporary experiments with neoliberal policies.

HIST 1270. Ancient Greece. 4 Hours.

Studies the Greek achievement from proto-Indo-European migrations through the Minoan and Mycenaean bronze age, to the evolution of Homeric and Hellenic societies in the iron age, to the rise of the city-states and the age of Alexander. Topics include the coexistence of the rational and the irrational; the paradox of ethical philosophies and exclusionary political systems; the tensions between particularism and cultural unity; and gender ideology and what has been termed “the reign of the phallus.”.

HIST 1271. Ancient Rome. 4 Hours.

Studies the establishment and origins of civilization in the Italian peninsula from Etruscan, Latin, and Greek foundations through the rise and institutionalization of the republic, to the achievement of empire, to Rome’s interactions with diverse peoples and its decline and collapse. Themes include diversity, toleration, uses and dangers of power, Rome’s legalistic legacy, and the Latinization of Christianity.

HIST 1272. Europe in the Middle Ages, 500–1500. 4 Hours.

Examines the history of medieval Europe in a period of tremendous fluidity, migration, and flux. Studies the experiences of men and women in European societies before clearly defined nation-states had emerged. Topics include forms of political and cultural integration; the contacts between Europeans and non-Europeans in the Mediterranean and beyond; and the place of religion, art, and ideology, with attention to how Europeans’ experiences varied according to their gender, class, and race.

HIST 1279. History of the American Film Industry. 4 Hours.

Examines and analyzes the artistic, commercial, cultural, and political history of the American film industry from its beginnings around 1900 to the present day. Emphasizes the development of the financial and artistic model of the classic “studio system” at the major Hollywood studios. Readings and lectures focus on economic factors that changed this system over time, such as labor-management relations and the rise and fall of the “star system.” Studies major genres and styles of film and their evolution, as well as their relationship to American historical and political trends: the Depression, World War II, the cold war, and the impact of the cultural revolution of the 1960s. Considers the changing role of the actor and of the director in Hollywood filmmaking.

HIST 1285. Introduction to Russian Civilization. 4 Hours.

Examines the origins of Russian culture in Eastern Orthodoxy and relations with the Byzantine Empire, and the subsequent evolution of Kiev, Moscow, and St. Petersburg as cultural/political centers, up to the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution. Includes readings in medieval Russian literature and nineteenth-century fiction, with consideration of the development of music and the visual arts. Conducted in English.

HIST 1286. History of the Soviet Union. 4 Hours.

Surveys social, political, economic, demographic, and cultural developments in the former Soviet Union since 1917: the legacies of war and revolution, the civil war between the communists and the anti-communists, famine, the New Economic Policy, competing perspectives on the new regime, the rise of Stalin, the Cultural Revolution, collectivization and industrialization, the Purges, World War II and its impact, the “two camps” and the origins of the Cold War, the Soviet Union and the new East European system, Khrushchev, destalinization, intellectuals and the “thaw,” the Cuban missile crisis, the demise of Khrushchev, Brezhnev and the period of stagnation, the Gorbachev Revolution, Yeltsin, nationalism, and the dissolution.

HIST 1290. Modern Middle East. 4 Hours.

Studies Middle Eastern politics, culture, and society from the mid-nineteenth century to the present.

HIST 1292. Jerusalem: Space and Image. 4 Hours.

Concentrates on significant moments in the development of Jerusalem from ancient times to the present. Explores the ways people throughout history have imagined the city in texts and images and examines the political context and the characteristics of the contemporary city. The word “Jerusalem” has long piqued the human imagination. The sacred texts of the three major monotheistic religions deal with the “history” and the stories of the city. Based on these descriptions, countless individuals, artists, researchers, and armies have tried to capture the city for their peoples. Many of these figures have caused bloodshed or lost their life or sanity for the city, while others have used its amazing inspiration to enrich the human experience and imagination.

HIST 1294. Strangers in a Strange Land? European Jewish History 1750–1945. 4 Hours.

Examines cultural, religious, political, and economic developments in European Jewish life between 1750 and 1945. Emphasizes the diversity of Jewish experiences in Europe and the significant changes in Jewish identity that occurred as many Jews became increasingly integrated into their surrounding populations. Includes topics such as “Haskalah,” or “Jewish Enlightenment”; the development of Reform Judaism; political and economic emancipation; changes in gender norms; Zionism; and anti-Semitism and the Holocaust. Includes films, memoirs, and cartoons and graphic novels, as well as important texts in Jewish history. HIST 1294 and JWSS 1294 are cross-listed.

HIST 1304. Topics in History. 4 Hours.

Covers special topics in history, selected by the instructor.

HIST 1334. History of New England. 4 Hours.

Examines the history of New England from earliest times to the present. Focuses on native peoples and early European settlement and development. Examines the role of New England in the establishment of the U.S. republic and the region’s influence on U.S. political, economic, and cultural history.

HIST 1389. History of Espionage 1: Antiquity to World War II. 4 Hours.

Explores the history of espionage through a series of case studies from ancient Rome, Greece, and China; the Reformation; the Age of Discovery; the French Revolution; the American Civil War; World War I and the Russian Revolution; and World War II. Commonly referred to as the world’s “second oldest profession,” espionage is an intrinsic part of the relationships between communities, institutions, and states. Draws from a wide variety of published and unpublished primary and secondary sources, supplemented by modern theoretical and social science perspectives, literature, and films.

HIST 1390. History of Espionage 2: Cold War Spies. 4 Hours.

Explores the history of espionage during the Cold War era (1943–1991) through a series of case studies. Draws from a wide variety of published and unpublished primary and secondary sources, supplemented by modern theoretical and social science perspectives, literature, and films. Students work individually and in teams to explore the history of covert operations, including the following subthemes: the origins of the Cold War in World War II, the postwar battle for German scientists, containment and rollback, Venona and code breaking, nuclear spies, defectors, proxy wars, insurgencies and counterinsurgencies, terrorism, and technology.

HIST 1500. Modern Chinese History and Culture. 4 Hours.

Introduces modern Chinese history and culture through literary works, films, and historical texts. Examines political, social, and cultural changes in China since 1800: the decline of empire; the New Culture Movement of the 1920s; the rise of nationalism and rural revolution; the changing roles of women; the Cultural Revolution of the 1960s; and China’s cinematic, literary, and economic engagement with the world since 1978. Taught in English and open to all undergraduates. CLTR 1500 and HIST 1500 are cross-listed.

HIST 1990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 2000. Native American Resistance: Past and Present. 4 Hours.

Introduces the Indigenous peoples of North America and the academic field of Native American and Indigenous studies. Combines public history and public art, field trips, and original research to focus on the ongoing resistance to colonization and erasure and the resilience of Indian nations in New England and beyond. Covers particular themes, including the present-day impact of historical treaties and policies including land allotment, relocation, termination, boarding schools, and natural resource extraction.

HIST 2211. The World Since 1945. 4 Hours.

Examines the political, economic, social, and cultural relationship between the developed and developing world since the end of World War II. Topics include the Cold War, independence and national movements in developing countries, the globalization of the world economy, scientific and technological innovations, wealth and poverty, the eradication of some diseases and the spread of others, the fall of the Soviet Union, Middle East turmoil, and the enduring conflict between Israel and Palestine.

HIST 2212. Cultural Responses to Catastrophe. 4 Hours.

Surveys the broad history of natural disasters from ancient times to the present. Readings and discussions explore the diverse array of cultural responses to natural disasters across civilizations and historical epochs, concluding with a focus on cultural, political, and economic responses to major catastrophes in the modern age. Topics include ancient accounts and interpretations of deluges, earthquakes, famines, and volcanic eruptions; notorious disasters of modern history such as the Lisbon earthquake of 1755 and Krakatoa eruption of 1883; and, finally, the often disputed distinction between natural and man-made disasters in contemporary times.

HIST 2214. War in the Modern World. 4 Hours.

Provides an analysis of the political and economic revolutions that produced modern industrial warfare, and explores the causes, prosecutions, and effects of the major wars fought since the mid-nineteenth century. Large portions of the course focus on World Wars I and II, but attention is also paid to the smaller wars of this period, to unconventional and nonmilitary forms of warfare, to the international trade in arms and training, and to terrorism, both state-sponsored and transnational. Using films, simulations, and team projects, students explore the diplomatic, political, economic, social, cultural, and psychological impacts of these wars as well as their military and technological aspects.

HIST 2215. Recitation for HIST 2211. 0 Hours.

Provides small-group discussion format to cover material in HIST 2211.

HIST 2222. History of Science and Technology. 4 Hours.

Offers a global interdisciplinary survey of the separate developments of science and technology, and the complex relationships between them, integrating theories of the philosophy and sociology of science within an historical framework. Emphasizes the environmental and ideological conditions that contribute to the birth and growth of the various sciences and to the relation between these conditions and technological innovation.

HIST 2232. History of Boston. 4 Hours.

Explores the history of Boston from colonial times to the present, with attention to the topographical growth and the ethnic composition of the city. Includes visits to historical sites and museums in the area.

HIST 2241. History of Media in America. 4 Hours.

Focuses on mass communications in American history, with attention to the roles of books, newspapers, magazines, films, radio, and television.

HIST 2243. American Images of China. 4 Hours.

Examines the relationship between Sino-American international relations and changes in American popular perceptions of China as revealed in the media and literature. Focuses on Sino-American relations since the nineteenth century, including the period of the missionaries and opium traders; the era of special privileges; the Open Door policy; the first half of the twentieth century, when China became America’s favorite protégé; and the years of strain, warfare, and finally accommodation after the Chinese communists came to power in 1949.

HIST 2280. Hitler, Germany, and the Holocaust. 4 Hours.

Studies historical developments from Germany’s defeat in World War I to the end of World War II. Topics include the failure of Weimar democracy; Weimar culture; the rise to power of Hitler and National Socialism; Nazi culture and racial wars against alleged “degenerates”; the roles of party leaders, business and cultural elites, and ordinary Germans in supporting and legitimizing the Nazi dictatorship.

HIST 2282. The Holocaust and Comparative Genocide. 4 Hours.

Examines the origins of the Holocaust, perpetrators and victims, and changing efforts to come to terms with this genocide. The Holocaust, the murder of six million Jews by Germans in Nazi-occupied Europe during World War II, is one of the crucial events of modern history. Investigates the uniqueness of the Holocaust relative to other acts of ethnic cleansing or genocide, including mass death in the New World and mass murder in Armenia, Bosnia, and Rwanda.

HIST 2285. America and the Holocaust. 4 Hours.

Examines the American response to the Holocaust, in terms of both contemporaneous knowledge and actions and the lasting impact on policy and culture. Starts with early twentieth-century events, such as the Armenian genocide, that shaped later attitudes. Explores the prewar period, particularly U.S. immigration and isolationist policies. Assesses Americans’ knowledge of European events as the extermination campaign unfolded and fights ensued over rescue possibilities. Examines changing depictions of the Holocaust that emerged in the postwar period as a result of critical events such as the Eichmann trial and popular television and film portrayals. Finally, considers how perceptions of the Holocaust have shaped subsequent U.S. responses to genocide. HIST 2285, JRNL 2285, and JWSS 2285 are cross-listed.

HIST 2299. Uses and Abuses of History: Historical Reasoning in U.S. Global and Domestic Policy. 4 Hours.

Studies how historical information influenced decision making in the United States during four policymaking episodes of the post–World War II era: the confrontation with the Soviet Union during the Cold War; the expansion of the welfare state during the 1960s; the war in Vietnam; and the Reagan “revolution.” Focuses on decisions made by policymakers as these four episodes evolved. Analyzes why decision makers did what they did; what extent they were guided by their understanding of history; how accurate their historical information was; and how usefully they applied their historical understanding to the situation at hand.

HIST 2300. Race, Religion, Ethnicity: The Example of Jewishness. 4 Hours.

Explores the relationship between Judaism and race from ancient times, through the birth of modern anti-Semitism in the nineteenth century and the Holocaust in the twentieth, to the resurgence of biologically based ideas of Jewish identity in recent decades. Seeks to answer the questions of what Jewishness is—race, religion, or ethnicity—and how and why Jews, along with other groups such as Italians, Irish, and Slavs, moved from being seen as racially “other” in nineteenth-century America to being considered “white” in the twentieth century. Through the lens of the Jewish experience, offers students an opportunity to acquire a deeper understanding of the historically changing meanings of such important concepts as race, ethnicity, and peoplehood. HIST 2300 and JWSS 2300 are cross-listed.

HIST 2301. The History Seminar. 4 Hours.

Introduces history majors to advanced techniques of historical practice in research and writing. Offers students an opportunity to conduct original research and write an original research paper. Seminar themes vary; students should check with the Department of History for a list of each year’s seminar offerings. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 2302. Historical Writing. 1 Hour.

Covers learning and practicing methods and conventions of historical writing for publication. Adjuncted to a Seminar in History, which fulfills the Advanced Writing in the Disciplines requirement.

HIST 2303. Gender and Reproductive Justice. 4 Hours.

Introduces the social, legal, and economic barriers to accessing reproductive healthcare domestically and internationally. Draws on various theoretical and analytic tools including critical race theory, critical legal theory, sociology of science, human rights, feminist theory, and a range of public health methods. Access to reproductive health services, including abortion, is one of the most contested political, social, cultural, and religious issues today. Covers domestic, regional, and international legal and regulatory frameworks on sexual reproductive health. HIST 2303, SOCL 2303, and WMNS 2303 are cross-listed.

HIST 2304. Topics in History. 4 Hours.

Covers special topics in history, selected by the instructor. May be repeated up to three times.

HIST 2306. The World in a Decade: The 1990s. 4 Hours.

Examines the political, economic, and social dynamics of the first post–Cold War decade. Topics include the geopolitical aftermath of the Cold War, democracy and development in developing countries, the globalization of the world economy and its impacts, the rise of nationalism, genocide, the rise of China as an economic power, and the varieties of Islamic movements.

HIST 2308. Law, Justice, and Society in Modern China. 4 Hours.

Offers an overview of the historical development and function of law in Chinese society from the late imperial era to today and in comparison with other bodies of jurisprudence. Reading a wide range of scholarly articles and monographs, the course looks at “law” beyond jurisprudence and legal codes to examine its changing relationship with social customs, political institutions, religious traditions, popular culture, family and gender relations, and economic exchanges.

HIST 2310. Spread of Buddhism. 4 Hours.

Focuses on Buddhism both as a set of spiritual ideas and as a living practice. From its origins in northern India more than 2,500 years ago to its current status as the fastest-growing religion in North America, Buddhism has had a lasting influence over much of world history. Examines the historical context in which Buddhism first developed, and how it adapted to different social and political situations throughout the world. Also engages in “practice-oriented” activities with contemporary Boston-area Buddhism in order to understand Buddhism’s continued relevance in today’s world.

HIST 2311. Colonialism/Imperialism. 4 Hours.

Examines the military, economic, political, and cultural expansion of world powers since the fifteenth century, and the ways in which colonized peoples were ruled. Why did colonialist countries feel the need to conquer and dominate, how did they do it, and why did they retreat on some fronts? How did people resist and cooperate with colonialism? How did colonialism affect national and cultural identities? Colonialism is examined as a global phenomenon and from a comparative perspective that looks at particular case studies. Also examines decolonization in the twentieth century.

HIST 2312. Global Migration. 4 Hours.

Examines human mobility from the early modern period to the present. Challenging popular assumptions about who migrates and why, the course explores mobility as a fundamental element of how empires, states, and societies function. Emphasizes cross-cultural connections made possible by migrant populations, questioning whether “globalization” is only a twentieth-century phenomenon. Looking at historical sources and firsthand accounts, offers students an opportunity to obtain a basic knowledge of major global migration movements from the Mongols and the Silk Road to the Atlantic slave trade; twentieth-century labor migrations; and contemporary issues such as trafficking, statelessness, and diaspora politics.

HIST 2315. Approaches to World History. 4 Hours.

Focuses on interpreting major patterns and connections in world history through discussion and assignments.

HIST 2317. Comparative Urban Histories. 4 Hours.

Focuses on a number of cities around the world from the mid-19th century until present times. Examines such themes as urban identity and citizenship; mechanisms of exclusion and inclusion within the city, especially in terms of class, race, and gender; and typologies of cities, such as colonial, global, and port cities.

HIST 2327. The Civil Rights Movement in United States History. 4 Hours.

Explores the origins, ideologies, path, and legacy of the long civil rights movement in U.S. history. Examines primary and secondary sources to trace the origins of the civil rights movement from the post-Reconstruction era in the United States through the triumphs and defeats of the struggle to end racial segregation and the culmination of civil rights legislation in the 1960s. Investigates how the legacies and memory of the movement shape our current understanding of civil rights. While this is a lecture-based course, students’ participation in weekly discussions based on the readings and in-class lectures determines a part of the overall course grade.

HIST 2330. Colonial and Revolutionary America. 4 Hours.

Covers the discovery and exploration of the New World, the settlement of the English, French, Dutch, Swedish, Spanish, and Russian colonies on the North American mainland, their development to 1763, the origins of their clashes with England, and the American Revolution.

HIST 2331. The Civil War and Reconstruction. 4 Hours.

Examines the causes and conduct of the U.S. Civil War, and the nature and effects of Reconstruction in the South. Topics include abolitionism and other reform efforts in the four decades before the war, constitutional and other political issues in the sectional crisis, territorial expansion as a sectional issue, the nature and economics of slavery and early capitalist formation in the North and South, the centrality of Abraham Lincoln in national politics, the military conduct of the war, technological innovation and its impact on the war, Reconstruction and the rights and plight of freed men and women, the rise of the Ku Klux Klan and other terrorist organizations, and the power of the Civil War, Reconstruction, and the ideals of equal rights in national memory.

HIST 2332. The United States, 1900–1945: Politics, Culture, and Globalism. 4 Hours.

Explores the history of the United States during the first half of the 20th century, during which the country was transformed from an agrarian to an industrial economy and from a secondary power to global dominance. Central themes include the national government’s multiple attempts to create policies, laws, and regulations consistent with maintaining social order, economic stability, and widely shared prosperity under the new economic conditions; the efforts of the United States to establish a world economic and political order in which a capitalist democracy could flourish; and the social, cultural, and political dimensions of the changing experiences of the American people. Topics include the Progressive Era (1900–1919); the 1920s; the Great Depression and the New Deal; and World War II.

HIST 2340. Cultural History of the U.S.. 4 Hours.

Identifies, explains, and traces the evolution of some of the most important ideas and issues that have shaped American history and culture. Explores the tension between community and individualism in the context of debates and conflicts about religious belief and toleration; the nature of liberty, civic responsibility, and the state; immigration and ethnicity; race and gender relationships; and class distinctions. Considers the impact of advertising and the growing consciousness of the power of a consumer-driven culture in the early twentieth century, and explores the simultaneous enthusiasm for and concern about technological innovation. Helps students understand the ways in which popular and elite literature, film, and other electronic media, advertising, leisure pursuits, and religion are mined for information about a culture.

HIST 2341. History of the Western U.S.. 4 Hours.

Examines the history of the western areas of North America that eventually became the United States. Topics include the history and culture of the indigenous peoples of the trans-Mississippi and far western United States; the political, economic, social, and cultural expansion of European settlers; cultural and military encounters of European and indigenous peoples; technological innovation and agriculture in the Great Plains, the Intermountain West, and the West Coast; cattle and sheep ranching; water and the West; ecology, conservation, and the politics of the “Sagebrush Rebellion”; Asian Americans in the West; mining; the Civil War in the West; African Americans and the Western experience; the cowboy and the importance of rodeo; and the West and the Native American in American popular culture (film, radio, television, literature, and advertising).

HIST 2342. Environmental History of North America. 4 Hours.

Introduces students to the study of environmental history in North America. American history has unfolded as an ongoing dialogue between diverse peoples and their equally diverse surroundings. Environmental history has sought to place this dialogue at the center of our understanding of the past. Including the place of plants, animals, geographic features, and climate has nuanced our understanding of the role of these actors in our histories. Surveys the varied roles that the natural world has played in American history. Focuses on understanding how these stories are told and examines the close connections between the fields of environmental history and historical ecology.

HIST 2343. History of Business in America. 4 Hours.

Traces the development of business from the colonial era to the present, with an emphasis on the industrial era (1840-1920s) and the modern period. Examines the factors that shaped commercialism and consumerism in the United States.

HIST 2344. U.S. Urban History. 4 Hours.

Examines the development of urban society in the United States in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, with emphasis on the effects of immigration and industrialization upon the politics, thought, and society of American cities.

HIST 2346. The American Empire. 4 Hours.

Examines American expansionism from the Monroe Doctrine and manifest destiny to recent neo-imperialism and “globalization,” with an emphasis on early twentieth-century expansion into Cuba, Hawaii, the Panama Canal Zone, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Samoa, and other Pacific islands. Focuses on cultural encounters, political debates, the economic impact of imperialism, and the perspectives of colonized peoples.

HIST 2348. America and the Sea. 4 Hours.

Studies the importance of the oceanic environment in its cultural, economic, political, and naval aspects to U.S. history. Investigates the impact of the oceans on native peoples in the period before the European encounter, followed by an examination of the motives driving Europeans seaward and their methods and technology for oceanic exploration and navigation. Follows the development of the Atlantic maritime world in the postcolonial period, including the rise of the United States as a maritime power and the extension of U.S. maritime influence across the Pacific. Focuses on the evolution of maritime communities in which fishing, trading, and shipbuilding played a role in crafting a cultural environment, including the influence of the sea on literature and art. Examines the role in diplomacy and war of the United States Navy.

HIST 2351. Modern Japan. 4 Hours.

Examines state formation, economic growth, imperialism and colonialism, war and defeat, and contemporary culture.

HIST 2352. Dictators and Democracy in Japan and Korea. 4 Hours.

Covers Japan and Korea since 1945, including military occupation, the Korean War, economic growth, social change, and international relations.

HIST 2360. History of Capitalism in East Asia. 4 Hours.

Traces capitalism’s transformation of economic life in East Asia from the early modern era to the contemporary world. Explores changes in the human participation of production, exchange, and consumption. Reading a wide range of scholarly articles and monographs, the course examines key topics, including the great divergence debate, commodification of labor, consumer cultures, birth of industrialization, resilience of family enterprises, gender and the economy, and the role of the developmental state.

HIST 2370. Renaissance to Enlightenment. 4 Hours.

Covers the social, economic, political, and cultural transformations of Europe from the Renaissance to the French Revolution. Traces the rebirth of Catholic Europe from 1300; the Reformation; the religious wars; struggles over religious and scientific beliefs; advances in technology, science, and warfare; overseas expansion; the scientific revolution; and the Enlightenment.

HIST 2371. Europe 1870–1921. 4 Hours.

Focuses on Europe from the Franco-Prussian War to the post-World War I settlement: the growing tensions and rivalries and the declining certainties of the end of the nineteenth century, the origins of World War I, the war itself, the Russian Revolution, and the Peace of Paris.

HIST 2372. Gender and Society in Modern Europe. 4 Hours.

Examines the importance of gender difference in European societies from 1700 to the present. Explores the historical development of masculinity and femininity in European societies, with attention to social class and national differences. Looks at the importance of gender in the emergence of nation-states, in major democratic and socialist revolutions, in economic change, in claims for and the exercise of citizenship rights, and in the policies of welfare states. Explores how gender and race shaped women’s agency, their engagement with imperialism and contacts with non-Europeans, women’s participation in war and totalitarian regimes, their private lives and sexuality, and the significance of European Union policies for gender equality today.

HIST 2373. Gender and Sexuality in World History. 4 Hours.

Introduces key concepts in the fields of gender and identity studies as they apply to world history since about 1800. Offers students an opportunity to understand the critical significance of gender, sex, sexuality, and identity to world events and how these contentious subjects influence the contemporary world. Surveys a series of major movements in geopolitics, labor, economics, culture, and society in order to analyze how individual and group identities, as well as mass assumptions about behavior and performance, have shaped these events. Gender, sex, and sexuality are integral to class discussions of work, welfare, art, culture, violence, war, and activism. HIST 2373 and WMNS 2373 are cross-listed.

HIST 2375. The Tudors, the Stuarts, and the Birth of Modern Britain. 4 Hours.

Examines the history of early modern England as well as Ireland, Wales, and Scotland. Follows the development of England from a small backwater to one of the most powerful European nations by the end of the seventeenth century. Analyzes the constantly shifting relationships between the various cultural identities within Britain. Concentrates on British history not only from the perspective of the elites but also the ordinary people whose names have often been lost to history. Key themes include the growth of the British Empire, issues of gender, the interactions between England and the Celtic fringes, and participation in the political franchise.

HIST 2376. Britain and the British Empire. 4 Hours.

Studies the history of the empire on which the sun never set from the 18th century through the 20th century. Traces the rise of Britain as a major world power. Topics include nationalism; the growth of capitalism and the international economy; and the role of women and gender, scientific racism, and anticolonial resistance movements.

HIST 2386. History of Soviet Cinema. 4 Hours.

Surveys the emergence and development of the film industry in the USSR. Examines the political, economic, ideological, and artistic sources of Soviet cinema and their relationship to Russian culture and history. Directors include Eisenstein, Vertov, Pudovkin, Dovzhenko, Kozintsev, Kalatozov, and Tarkovsky.

HIST 2387. Soviet Secret Police. 4 Hours.

Explores a vast array of primary and secondary sources, supplemented by literature and film, and traces the roles of the domestic and international branches of the Soviet secret police throughout its seventy-year history. Explores the role of ideology in Soviet clandestine organizations; the foundations of Soviet policing; political terror and denunciations; informants’ networks; recruitment of agents at home and abroad; the British spy scandals of the 1930s-1950s; Soviet intelligence successes and failures in World War II; the origins of the Cold War; the atom spy networks; the popular culture of “spy mania” in the McCarthy era; the Cuban missile crisis; the Brezhnev era; the KGB and the Soviet collapse; and spies and spying in the post-Soviet era.

HIST 2388. Borderlands: World War II in Eastern Europe. 4 Hours.

Devoted to the study of Russia’s western borderlands before, during, and immediately following the Second World War, 1939-1948. Drawing from a variety of original documents, films, and recent scholarly studies, evaluates the impact of World War II on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Examines the basic history of World War II in the East, followed by several weeks of readings on special themes: Soviet occupation policy (1939-1941); Ostpolitik; German occupation policy in Soviet territory, 1941-1945; genocide and the Holocaust; partisans and collaborators; nationalism; ethnic reprisals after the Soviet liberation of occupied zones; and the origins of the Cold War.

HIST 2390. Africa and the World in Early Times. 4 Hours.

Examines the place of Africa in the world from 1000 C.E. to the mid-19th century. Investigates the histories of ancient Egypt, the savannah and forest regions of West Africa, coastal and interior East Africa, and southern Africa. Explores the rise of medieval city-states and empires, the activities of the Atlantic slave trade and the trans-Saharan and Indian Ocean slave trades, debates over mass migration and the spread of language groups, the rise of agriculture, the development of nonstate political structures, the growth of trading societies, and the development of new cultural forms. Links Africa’s early histories to current debates about the role of history in contemporary politics and to present understandings of Africa’s historical place in world affairs.

HIST 2391. Modern African Civilization. 4 Hours.

Explores African history and culture from the early 1500s to the present era. Emphasizes the relationship between Europe and Africa, the circumstances surrounding the imperialist partition of Africa, and the decolonization process.

HIST 2394. Islamic Nationalism. 4 Hours.

Traces the historical antecedents to contemporary resurgent Islamic nationalism.

HIST 2397. Modern Africa. 4 Hours.

Covers the history of modern Africa. From the late-19th century to the present day, Africans have shaped, and have been shaped by, transformative events. By the early 20th century, European powers had colonized most of the African continent. By the mid-1960s, most Africans were free from colonial rule; colonialism on the continent did not conclude until the 1990s with the fall of the apartheid state in South Africa. Africans have aimed to achieve political and economic stability, to negotiate cold war politics, harness international development support, and thrive in a globalized world. They have experienced brutal wars, devastating epidemics, and grave natural disasters but have also inspired the world with their rich cultures, profound histories, creative emerging economies, and vibrant democratic movements.

HIST 2398. Radicals, Terrorists, and Insurgents. 4 Hours.

Analyzes various movements that have turned to violence as a means of achieving political ends. Traces the history of political violence from the eighteenth century to the present, focusing on the ideologies and tactics employed by anti-colonial, anti-imperial, and other movements. The terms “radical,” “terrorist,” and “insurgent” have become catchphrases almost devoid of meaning. We attempt to understand what rationales lead people to political violence as well as what commonalities are shared by diverse movements.

HIST 2431. Immigration and Identity in the American Jewish Experience. 4 Hours.

Examines Jewish political, social, and cultural history from the arrival of the first group of Jews at New Amsterdam in 1654 to the present. Themes include immigration, adaptation, family life, religion, anti-Semitism, Zionism, the Holocaust, and American-Israeli relations. HIST 2431 and JWSS 2431 are cross-listed.

HIST 2990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 2991. Research Practicum. 2-4 Hours.

Involves students in collaborative research under the supervision of a faculty member. Offers students an opportunity to learn basic research methods in the discipline. Open to students with freshman standing with permission of instructor. May be repeated once for up to 4 total credits.

HIST 3304. Topics in History. 4 Hours.

Covers special topics in history, selected by the instructor. May be repeated up to three times.

HIST 3322. The History of Medicine in North America. 4 Hours.

Surveys the history of medicine in what is now the United States between the arrival of European explorers in the 16th century and the end of the Second World War. Introduces exemplary moments in the history of medicine as it is practiced today and examines how these histories connect to the experience of the dispossessed, the enslaved, and the economically and culturally marginalized in American history. Encourages students to consider how the history of medicine has been written both by historians and practitioners. Explores the history of medicine both as a series of events, places, and people and as a method for opening up American history more broadly.

HIST 3330. The Global Cold War. 4 Hours.

Examines the Cold War, emphasizing how the Soviet-American struggle for global preeminence intersected with decolonization and the rise of the “Third World.” Uses primary sources, monographs, and scholarly articles to trace the major events and developments of the Cold War—ideological differences between the capitalist and socialist systems, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the construction of the Berlin Wall, the Vietnam War—while also exploring how and why the Cold War came to pervade economic, cultural, and social relations globally. Examines how unexpected actors—Cuban doctors and Peace Corps volunteers—responded to and shaped superpower rivalry. Considers how the Cold War continues to shape the world today.

HIST 3412. Global Environmental History. 4 Hours.

Examines the impact of four significant human transitions on the environment of the planet Earth. They include the transition from hunter/gathering to settlement and the invention of agriculture about 10,000 years ago. The agricultural or neolithic revolution was followed thousands of years later by the urban revolution and ultimately the Industrial Revolution. These three important developments in world environmental history happened within specific millennia and simultaneously in different parts of the world. In the beginning, they were not the product of physical or cultural diffusion. Urbanization and industrialization, however, promoted worldwide migration that disrupted and changed the world’s ecology and environment in significant ways. Also explores the electronic revolution of the past centuries, which has had its own set of environmental impacts.

HIST 3421. History through Film. 4 Hours.

Explores various historical issues as seen through the eyes of historians and filmmakers. Presents both acted and documentary films in combination with readings from a variety of sources and interpretive materials. Through a series of case studies, the first half of the course looks at the ways in which filmmakers use (and abuse) history as a source of dramatic “stories,” while the second uses the same approach to understand the ways that historians use visual media to understand the politics and culture of the times they were made and as historical evidence.

HIST 3422. Recitation for HIST 3421. 0 Hours.

Provides small-group discussion format to cover material in HIST 3421.

HIST 3452. Global Chinese Migration. 4 Hours.

Explores how the Chinese have been moving and creating communities around the world for centuries. What, if anything, makes them “Chinese” despite such a large variety of historical experiences? Attempts to understand this migration both in terms of large-scale trends and the unique experiences of local communities and cultural change. Also examines Chinese business networks, which are sometimes thought to present a powerful challenge to Western forms of capitalism. Is Chinese capitalism different from other capitalist business, and does Chinese culture play a role in shaping it?.

HIST 3485. Vienna, Prague, Budapest. 4 Hours.

Examines the intellectual and cultural history of these three closely linked capitals of Central Europe, their relationship to empires, multinationalism, and the development of modernism before and after World War I.

HIST 3486. Commissars and Managers: Soviet Economic History. 4 Hours.

Provides an economic history of the Soviet Union from 1917 to the present. Working in lectures and the computer lab, students use tactics and methods of modern business, economics, and management strategy as a means to understand, interpret, and evaluate Soviet economic policies and the history of Soviet economic development. Special themes include discussions of the purge of industrial managers as “wreckers,” the labor incentives of Stakhanovism—the Stalinist star system for extraordinary labor productivity, the economics of forced labor and the Gulag, the Second World War, financing the Cold War, the black market, corruption, and the central role played by former communists in the transition to capitalism (nomenklatura privatization).

HIST 3487. Central European Capitals on the Eve of World War I. 4 Hours.

Examines the intellectual and cultural history of three closely linked capitals of central Europe—Vienna, Prague, and Budapest—and their relationship to empires, multinationalism, and the development of modernism before and after World War I.

HIST 3800. American Conservatism from the New Deal to the Present. 4 Hours.

Explores the history of the modern American Right, from the New Deal to the present. Despite its widespread use as a political label, the term “conservative” is far from self-evident as a subject of historical inquiry. Emphasizes the fact that conservatism is not a fixed set of ideas but a complex social, political, intellectual, and cultural phenomenon. Examines groups and individuals who have claimed the label conservative as well as those who have had the label thrust upon them. Combines readings from the past and present in order to help students more accurately assess and reflect on U.S. political discourse from FDR to the present.

HIST 3990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4600. Topics in Women’s History. 4 Hours.

Covers special topics in the history of women and gender. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4610. Topics in World History. 4 Hours.

Covers special topics in world history. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4620. Topics in Historical Geography. 4 Hours.

Covers special topics in the ways in which geographic, climatic, environmental, and demographic factors have affected the course of history. Tools such as GIS (geographic information systems) are introduced and explored to enhance understanding of these complex interrelationships. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4630. Topics in American History. 4 Hours.

Covers special topics in the history of America in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4631. Topics in Public History. 4 Hours.

Covers special topics in public history. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4640. Topics in African-American History. 4 Hours.

Covers special topics in African-American history. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4650. Topics in Asian History. 4 Hours.

Covers special topics in Asian history. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4660. Topics in Latin American History. 4 Hours.

Covers special topics in the history of the Caribbean and Latin America. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4670. Topics in European History. 4 Hours.

Covers topics in European history from antiquity to the present. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4680. Topics in Russian History. 4 Hours.

Covers special topics in Russian history. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4681. Topics in Soviet History. 4 Hours.

Covers special topics in Soviet history. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4682. Topics in East European History. 4 Hours.

Covers special topics in East European history. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4690. Topics in African History. 4 Hours.

Covers special topics in African history. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4691. Topics in Middle Eastern History. 4 Hours.

Covers special topics in Middle Eastern history. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4701. Capstone Seminar. 4 Hours.

Offers students an opportunity to make use of advanced techniques of historical methodology to conduct original research and write a major, original research paper as the culmination of their work toward the history degree. This is a capstone research and writing seminar for history majors. Not open to students who are receiving credit for HIST 4911, HIST 4912, HIST 4970, or HIST 4971.

HIST 4903. Fieldwork in History 1. 4 Hours.

Offers directed work in historical societies, archives, museums, and other historical agencies. Please consult the department for details.

HIST 4904. Fieldwork in History 2. 4 Hours.

Offers directed work in historical societies, archives, museums, and other historical agencies. Please consult the department for details.

HIST 4911. Senior Project 1. 4 Hours.

Offers advanced directed research under the guidance of history faculty.

HIST 4912. Senior Project 2. 4 Hours.

Offers advanced directed research under the guidance of history faculty.

HIST 4929. Directed Study in Media and History. 4 Hours.

Permits students who have completed course work on this subject to undertake advanced individual applications projects in media and history. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4930. Directed Study in Managing Nonprofit Organizations. 4 Hours.

Permits students who have completed course work on this subject to undertake advanced applications of study. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4931. Directed Study in Historical Societies and Archives. 4 Hours.

Permits students who have completed course work on this subject to undertake advanced applications of study. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4932. Directed Study in Historical Exhibits and Museums. 4 Hours.

Permits students who have completed course work on this subject to undertake advanced applications of study. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4933. Directed Study in Historical Editing. 4 Hours.

Permits students who have completed course work on this subject to undertake advanced applications of study. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4934. Directed Study in Historical Consulting. 4 Hours.

Permits students who have completed course work on this subject to undertake advanced applications of study. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4936. Directed Study in Historic Preservation. 4 Hours.

Permits students who have completed course work on this subject to undertake advanced applications of study. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4937. Directed Study in Material Culture. 4 Hours.

Permits students who have completed course work on this subject to undertake advanced applications of study. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4938. Directed Study in Historical Analysis of Public Policy. 4 Hours.

Permits students who have completed course work on this subject to undertake advanced applications of study. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4939. Directed Study in Publishing for Nonprofits. 4 Hours.

Permits students who have completed course work on this subject to undertake advanced applications of study. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4940. Directed Study in Oral History. 4 Hours.

Permits students who have completed course work on this subject to undertake advanced applications of study. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4941. Directed Study in Genealogical Research. 4 Hours.

Permits students who have completed course work on this subject to undertake advanced applications of study. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4942. East Asian Cultural History Abroad. 4 Hours.

Designed to provide students with an in-depth understanding of the cultural history of East Asia through a total-immersion learning experience. Coupled with a Dialogue of Civilizations course, introduces students to East Asian cultural history through guest lectures, films, on-site visits, and the study of a broad array of written materials. Offers students many opportunities to participate in dialogues with university students and faculty in the region of study. Facilitates student independent research through faculty mentoring, reading, and field trips. Emphasizes independent work on a research project. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4944. Middle Eastern History and Culture Independent Field Research Abroad. 4 Hours.

Designed to provide students with an in-depth understanding of Middle Eastern history, culture, society, and politics. Includes lectures, talks, discussions, and visits to historic and cultural sites in the country of study. Examines both historical and modern-day issues, attitudes, and ideologies. Offers an opportunity for students to engage in sustained dialogue with university students, professors, and politicians in the country of study. Emphasizes independent work on a research project. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4945. North African History Abroad. 4 Hours.

Seeks to provide students with an in-depth understanding of the history, culture, and political economy of Morocco. Combines exposure to both urban and rural settings to analyze current issues facing the Kingdom of Morocco in the twenty-first century in the context of its rich history. Investigates a number of key historical and cultural sites as well as providing a variety of lectures. Offers students an opportunity to dialogue with people from various sectors of Moroccan society as well as experience the ethnic, religious, and cultural diversity of the region. Emphasizes student engagement in independent research projects.

HIST 4946. Independent Field Research Abroad: Central Europe. 4 Hours.

Provides an introduction to the political, cultural, and intellectual history of major central European cities. Issues discussed include the influence of geography on historical and political destiny, development of each city as a major center within a multinational empire, the flowering of culture in each city at the fin de siècle, and the relationship of political to intellectual and cultural history. Includes visits to major historical and cultural sites in the cities of study. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4970. Junior/Senior Honors Project 1. 4 Hours.

Focuses on in-depth project in which a student conducts research or produces a product related to the student’s major field. Combined with Junior/Senior Project 2 or college-defined equivalent for 8-credit honors project. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4971. Junior/Senior Honors Project 2. 4 Hours.

Focuses on second semester of in-depth project in which a student conducts research or produces a product related to the student’s major field. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4991. Research. 4 Hours.

Offers an opportunity to conduct research under faculty supervision.

HIST 4992. Directed Study. 1-4 Hours.

Offers independent work under the direction of members of the department on a chosen topic. Course content depends on instructor. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4993. Independent Study. 1-4 Hours.

Offers independent work under the direction of members of the department on a chosen topic. Course content depends on instructor. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4994. Internship in World History. 4 Hours.

Offers a formal internship at the World History Resource Center for preservice teachers of history during the fall semester of the fourth year. Students read curriculum units prepared by other teachers and develop at least one substantial, multilesson unit of world history curriculum, under supervision of a history faculty member and in consultation with a practicing teacher. Fulfills experiential education requirement. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 4996. Experiential Education Directed Study. 4 Hours.

Draws upon the student’s approved experiential activity and integrates it with study in the academic major. Restricted to those students who are using it to fulfill their experiential education requirement. May be repeated once.

HIST 5101. Theory and Methodology 1. 3 Hours.

Examines the following questions in the context of major issues in current historical research and debate. Where do historical questions come from, and how do we answer them? How do we produce knowledge about historical events and processes? What theoretical models guide historians work? Emphasizes interdisciplinary approaches as well as concrete techniques in historical research. Required of all first-year graduate students.

HIST 5102. Theory and Methodology 2. 3 Hours.

Continues HIST 5101. Offers an advanced exploration of the theories and methods used by historians to develop students’ ability to understand and critique the work of other historians. Emphasis is on theories and methods in world history, such as comparative models, systemic approaches, and focus on interconnections. Explores what it means to have a local, national, or global perspective, and how world history fits in with other fields of historical scholarship. Required of all PhD students.

HIST 5111. Money, Markets, Commodities: Global Economic History. 3 Hours.

Studies money, markets, and commodities in world history. Focuses on the questions that historians have asked about economic phenomena and relations and the different strategies they have developed to address those questions. Broadly, the works analyzed fall into the historiographical categories of social history, political economy, history from below, economic history, and cultural history. These boundaries, however, are challenged as quickly as they are defined. Topics include debt and credit; market economies and consumer societies; formal, informal, legal, and illegal trade networks; and the transformation of the global economy by specific commodities.

HIST 5237. Issues and Methods in Public History. 3 Hours.

Examines and analyzes major issues and methods in public history in the United States and the world. Topics include the nature and meaning of national memory and myth, the theory and practice of historic preservation, rural and land preservation and the organizational structures and activities associated with those efforts, the interrelationship of historical museums and popular culture, the history and organization of historic house museums, historical documentary filmmaking, historical archaeology in world perspective, interpreting “ordinary” landscapes, and the impact of politics on public history.

HIST 5238. Managing Nonprofit Organizations. 3 Hours.

Examines the management of nonprofit organizations, which include historical agencies, museums, archives, historic houses, and various special historical collections. The literature on historical administration is lacking in sufficient conceptual rigor to generalize about the inner and outer workings of a complex management organization. Since historical agencies and museums are complex organizations with missions and goals, and with policies and procedures for involving various “publics” in their activities, explores them as part of the changing and evolving organizational structure of a modern society. Covers public management with all of its institutional components and human complexities. Studies planning in the public sector, budgeting, fundraising, conflict resolution, and the human relations literature as it relates to becoming a functional and successful manager.

HIST 5239. Media and History. 3 Hours.

Introduces students to the variety of chemical and electronic media, and the appropriate uses of these media for teaching, preservation, outreach, and primary research documents. Each student engages in research related to the selection and evaluation of existing media, and on the deconstruction, analysis, evaluation, and assembly of documentary presentations. Students then form research and production teams for the creation of actuality media production, which takes place during the semester. Topics include media preservation, production budgeting, marketing, and intellectual property.

HIST 5240. Historical Societies and Archives. 3 Hours.

Analyzes the varieties of historical societies (local, state, and national) and the kinds of private (business, college, and church) and public (local, state, and national) archives; their activities and procedures; and their similarities and differences.

HIST 5241. Exhibits and Museums. 3 Hours.

Considers the history of museums and exhibitions from a transnational perspective in order to examine the various roles museums have played in historical and contemporary global culture. Explores museums as cultural institutions and institutional cultures through historical and theoretical readings, museum visits, and the development of students’ own exhibitions. Currently among the world’s most popular sites of education and leisure, museums have held a wide range of social, political, and cultural roles over the past 500 years. Offers students an opportunity to develop more acute insight into the ways museums and their exhibitions have made and reflected ideas about history, science, art, identity, and culture.

HIST 5242. Historical Editing. 3 Hours.

Introduces the practice and skills of historical editing. Emphasis is on identification and explication of documents within their historical context in preparation for publication. Presents a laboratory for the study and practice of historical editing. Introduces the major collections of edited papers and instructs students in editing historical documents. Gives each student a historical document to prepare for publication. Also covers the editing of history books and journals.

HIST 5243. Industrial Archaeology. 3 Hours.

Introduces the history, practice, and place of industrial archaeology. Plans examination of techniques and procedures used to unearth the industrial past and offers field trips to local industrial sites.

HIST 5244. Historic Preservation. 3 Hours.

Introduces historic preservation, with attention to the history, the philosophy, and the practical problems of preservation.

HIST 5245. Historical Analysis of Public Policy. 3 Hours.

Introduces the historical study of public policy, concentrating on the theoretical and methodological issues. Substantive illustrations focus mainly on the United States.

HIST 5246. Oral History. 3 Hours.

Discusses the theory and practice of creating, processing, and using primary source material obtained by taping interviews with people whose role in history would otherwise go unrecorded.

HIST 5247. Historical Reenactment. 3 Hours.

Explores the methodologies and approaches involved in historic reenactment. Introduces students to live representation of a historic individual within the context of the correlating historical time period. Historical reenactment synthesizes the tools of historical research with those of live performance and audience interaction.

HIST 5248. Historical Administration. 3 Hours.

Examines complex, formal organizations, with emphasis on historical agencies. Topics include personnel relationships, the characteristics of successful managers, and strategic planning. Issues of finance, budgeting, and proposal writing are priorities in this professional course for public history majors.

HIST 5295. Population in History. 3 Hours.

Examines through population studies and historical demography the causes and consequences of changes in human marriage, birth, death, and migration rates from the Stone Age to the present on a global scale. Focuses on the role of the environment, relative economic growth, differential nutritional status, epidemic disease, family systems, and public administration in tracing the modern population explosion, highlighting the process through which human agency brought contagious diseases under better control and extended human life expectancies, before medicine could cure disease.

HIST 5976. Directed Study. 1-4 Hours.

Offers independent work under the direction of members of the department on chosen topics. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 5978. Independent Study. 1-4 Hours.

Offers independent work under the direction of members of the department on a chosen topic. Course content depends on instructor. May be repeated without limit.

HIST 5984. Research. 1-4 Hours.

Offers an opportunity to conduct research under faculty supervision. May be repeated without limit.