Cultures, Societies, and Global Studies

The Department of Cultures, Societies, and Global Studies is an open and dynamic academic platform for interdisciplinary research and teaching on the transformative power of culture as an instrument for social change and innovation. We approach the challenges facing humanity through perspectives that are primarily, though not exclusively, informed by the experiences of the peoples from the Global South (Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and Latin America) and its diasporas. As we search for the tools to foster sustainable economic growth and social well-being on a global scale, we aim to reevaluate and learn from the historical experiences, belief systems, intellectual traditions, and pressing concerns of the greater part of the world’s population. This requires a critical reexamination of the persistence of Eurocentric postulates that were developed to support modern colonialism and nationalism with their variegated world of “otherness”. As such, we adhere to the broadest and most inclusive definition of languages and cultures as we aim to understand, shape, and thrive in a global community characterized by increased social connectivity, economic integration, intellectual exchange, and cultural hybridity. Indeed, we are your gateway to the languages and peoples of the world and we have the broadest selection of majors and minors in Northeastern!

African-American Courses

AFAM 1101. Introduction to African-American Studies. 4 Hours.

Explores several of the possible historical, sociological, cultural, and political avenues of study in the broad interdisciplinary spectrum of African-American studies. Provides an introductory overview of the field and offers an opportunity to identify areas for more specific focus.

AFAM 1104. The African-American Experience through Music. 4 Hours.

Explores the various musical traditions of African Americans, with a specific focus on the United States. Examines the impact of African, European, and Native American traditions on African-American music as well as the role of music as an expression of African-American aesthetics, traditions, and life. Considers historical and contemporary forms of African-American music, with selected video presentations. Not open to students who have taken MUSC 1104.

AFAM 1109. Foundations of Black Culture 1. 4 Hours.

Studies music, literature, visual and performing arts, and other cultural and artistic traditions as they have evolved among African, African-American, and Caribbean peoples.

AFAM 1113. Black Popular Culture: Music, Movies, and More. 4 Hours.

Surveys Black popular culture from the mid-1950s to the present through music, movies, music videos, and other forms of multimedia, paying close attention to social commentary, political critique, economic inference, cultural formation, explications of religious and spiritual beliefs, and the like. Issues of representation, identity, values, and aesthetics are pondered and discussed. Seeks to cause students to rethink and reexamine the intent and impact of Black popular culture as a method and means of expression and communication.

AFAM 1140. Introduction to African-American History. 4 Hours.

Surveys the development of African Americans in the United States from their African background to the present. Covers medieval and early modern societies in West and Central Africa; the transatlantic slave trade; the evolution of slavery from the colonial period through the Civil War; free blacks; Reconstruction; migration; civil rights; and black nationalism. Considers gender relations throughout the entire period and emphasizes how an historical perspective helps to inform discussions of contemporary issues.

AFAM 1225. Gender, Race, and Medicine. 4 Hours.

Examines the basic tenets of “scientific objectivity” and foundational scientific ideas about race, sex, and gender and what these have meant for marginalized groups in society, particularly when they seek medical care. Introduces feminist science theories ranging from linguistic metaphors of the immune system, to the medicalization of race, to critiques of the sexual binary. Emphasizes contemporary as well as historical moments to trace the evolution of “scientific truth” and its impact on the U.S. cultural landscape. Offers students an opportunity to develop the skills to critically question what they “know” about science and the scientific process and revisit their disciplinary training as a site for critical analysis. AFAM 1225, HIST 1225, and WMNS 1225 are cross-listed.

AFAM 1990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

AFAM 2270. Race and Ethnic Relations. 4 Hours.

Focuses on racial and religious groups, particularly with reference to the United States. Emphasizes historical development, specific problems of adjustment and assimilation, and present-day problems and trends. SOCL 2270 and AFAM 2270 are cross-listed.

AFAM 2296. Early African-American Literature. 4 Hours.

Surveys the development and range of black American writers, emphasizing poetry and prose from early colonial times to the Civil War. ENGL 2296 and AFM 2296 are cross-listed.

AFAM 2360. Politics of Poverty. 4 Hours.

Explores how and why there is poverty, how it affects people’s lives, and how it can be eliminated. Examines the relations between poverty, racial and ethnic factors, and the economic, political, and administrative systems. Evaluates a number of alternatives and provides an opportunity for clarifying individual assumptions and feelings about poverty.

AFAM 2399. Black Community and Social Change. 4 Hours.

Explores the dynamic changes experienced by black communities in the United States since the civil rights era in the 1950s and 1960s. Includes discussions and applications of key concepts and methods in several fields of the social sciences, and seeks to understand the relationship of race, class, gender, and social change in addressing the current search for policies and programs for community development.

AFAM 2455. American Women Writers. 4 Hours.

Surveys the diversity of American women’s writing to ask what it means to describe writers as disparate as Phillis Wheatley, Edith Wharton, Toni Morrison, and Alison Bechdel as part of the same “tradition.” With attention to all genres of American women’s writing, introduces issues of genre and gender; literary identification; canons; the politics of recuperation; silence and masquerade; gender and sexuality; intersectionality; sexual and literary politics, compulsory heterosexuality, and more. AFAM 2455, ENGL 2455, and WMNS 2455 are cross-listed.

AFAM 2549. Public Policy and Black America. 4 Hours.

Examines the impact of public policy on African Americans and the role of African Americans in the formulation of public policy. These roles include protest, interest-group politics, electoral politics, and blacks as policy researchers and advisers. The process of public policy formulation as it affects blacks is explored through a series of case studies ranging from the formulation and enforcement of fugitive slave laws in the pre–Civil War era to strategic military and foreign policy, affirmative action, welfare reform, and reparations in our own time.

AFAM 2600. Contemporary Issues: Race, Science, and Technology. 4 Hours.

Examines the social impact of diverse forms of technological development and application that will have sweeping effects on the everyday lives of individuals, groups, governments, and societies in the twenty-first century. The global, transforming effects of technology as it affects communities of color in the United States and internationally are explored in three main areas: the computer, DNA, and quantum revolutions. Topics include the digital divide, minority media ownership, human cloning, the “dot.com” phenomenon, race and cultural representations in cyberspace, and biopiracy. Lectures, class discussions, fieldwork, and interaction with leaders in these various fields are integral elements of the course.

AFAM 2639. Globalism, Racism, and Human Rights. 4 Hours.

Explores the historical stages of globalization as a geopolitical and social phenomenon having significant impact on social change. Focuses on multiple effects of racism and the gradual emergence of human rights as an extension of basic freedoms internationally. Topics and themes include the African and Latino Diaspora, North-South debates, gender, Third World countries, democratization, poverty, healthcare/pandemic disease, censorship, political repression, new development strategies, and the role of the United Nations and other international organizations in increasingly complex societies.

AFAM 2990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

AFAM 3990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

AFAM 4640. Topics in African-American History. 4 Hours.

Covers special topics in African-American history. May be repeated without limit.

AFAM 4990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

AFAM 4991. Research. 4 Hours.

Offers an opportunity to conduct research under faculty supervision.

African Studies

AFRS 1101. Introduction to African Studies. 4 Hours.

Uses a multidisciplinary approach to offer an introduction and overview of the geographical, demographic, socioeconomic, and political conditions of the African continent, emphasizing sub-Saharan Africa. Africa, “the cradle of humankind,” is a vast, complex continent of diverse peoples that has fascinated observers and evoked multiple images. Topical areas of interest range from ethnic relations, politics, colonial experience, and international relations to religion, environment, health, economic development, gender, culture, and literature. Course materials aim to provide contemporary African perspectives and analyses that offer students an opportunity to acquire and interpret broad knowledge about the continent.

AFRS 1180. African History. 4 Hours.

Explores the history of the African continent from 1000 C.E. to the present era. Topics include medieval kingdoms (Ghana, Mali, Songhai, Zimbabwe, the city-states of East Africa, and the Kongo kingdom); slave trades (Indian Ocean, trans-Saharan, and transatlantic); the partition of Africa and European colonization; and the decolonization process. Due consideration is given to the interactions of African peoples with the rest of the world, particularly the relations between Africa and Europe after 1500 C.E.

AFRS 1185. Gender in the African Diaspora. 4 Hours.

Studies variations in gender roles throughout the African Diaspora, from precolonial Africa to the modern United States. Areas of the African Diaspora include Africa, the West Indies, Latin America, Europe, and the Islamic world. Issues include sexuality, labor, reproduction, and social constructions of gender. AFRS 1185, INTL 1185, and WMNS 1185 are cross-listed.

AFRS 1270. Introduction to Global Health. 4 Hours.

Introduces global health in the context of an interdependent and globalized world focusing on four main areas of analysis: infrastructure of global health; diseases; populations; and terms, concepts, and theories. While the focus is on lower-income countries, the course examines issues in a broader global context, underscoring the interconnections between global health disparities and global health policy response. Applies case studies describing interventions to improve healthcare in resource-poor settings in sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere to help illuminate the actors, diseases, populations, and principles and frameworks for the design of effective global health interventions. AFRS 1270 and PHTH 1270 are cross-listed.

AFRS 1990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

AFRS 2307. Africa Today. 4 Hours.

Offers a basic survey of the latest innovations and cultural and socioeconomic trends of 21st-century Africa. Examines the political transformations of some of the 49 Sub-Saharan African nations. Focuses on a culturally and ethnically diverse continent of five regions with linguistic and religious diversity and tribal societies reflecting an ancient triple heritage—Indigenous, Arab, and European. Presents complex and critical perspectives on topics including governance and civil strife, gender empowerment, the impact of globalization, trade and investment developments, public health challenges, the visual and performing arts, identity formation among a rising youth demographic to pervasive mobile technology, food security, and the new "African" passport. .

AFRS 2414. Global Revolution. 4 Hours.

Introduces the tensions that produce conflict throughout the world and the African Diaspora and explores how social justice emerges in societies worldwide. Global unrest, street protests, and citizen activism are happening everywhere as broad political struggles that express civil discontent about social and economic inequalities and lead to crisis, conflict, revolution, and change. Globalization has affected the dynamics of power, the interdependence of nations, struggling democracies, global citizenship, and how civil society and community organizing are challenging political repression and corruption and improving the quality of life for all. Covers the Arab Spring in Africa and the Middle East, Occupy Wall Street/Occupy Together campaigns, international debates on climate change and immigration reform, and the digital age and open courseware.

AFRS 2465. The Scope and Dynamics of Conflicts in Africa. 4 Hours.

Surveys the faces, character, and manifestations of violent and nonviolent conflicts across the landscape of continental Africa. Addresses the causes/sources of conflict, types of conflicts and their impact on society, and the conflict resolution mechanisms. The contemporary history of the continent of Africa is defined most markedly by conflict that has impacted heavily on the continent’s diverse multicultural societies, polities, and economies. The structure of conflicts in the continent is complex and, indeed, exhibits diverse faces; conflicts differ in their roots, causes, and explanations and between the different regions and population groups in the south, east, central, west, and north. The course critically analyzes this broad range of aspects with specific focus on sub-Saharan Africa using country- and case-based analyses and critical thinking.

AFRS 2900. Swahili, Culture, and Politics in Kenya. 4 Hours.

Introduces and immerses students in Kenyan African culture, the Swahili language and politics, and studies their impact on the everyday life of the local population. Offers students an opportunity to learn Swahili, which is the national language of Kenya; its use in a context of varied indigenous languages; and cultural dynamics. Exposes students to the major issues that characterize everyday life in rural and urban settings through visits to and stays in the rural areas and transect walks in villages and urban communities. Students visit projects run by community-based organizations, observing the everyday life of ordinary Kenyans and attending formal and informal classes and settings on Swahili language, culture, and the local politics.

AFRS 3424. Epidemiology of Pandemic Diseases and Health Disparities in the African Diaspora. 4 Hours.

Examines the epidemiology and determinants of diseases and the public health practice among continental African peoples and African-derived populations in the Americas and elsewhere in the African Diaspora. Emphasizes such epidemic diseases as malaria, yellow fever, tuberculosis, smallpox, the current AIDS pandemic, obesity, and cancer. The course also aims to critically address the breadth of factors behind these pandemics, such as socioeconomic, political, health system, behavioral, and genetic. A cross-cutting theme throughout the course is the entrenched health disparities in society.

AFRS 3460. Contemporary Government and Politics in Africa. 4 Hours.

Explores contemporary politics in African nations south of the Sahara. Studies South Africa, Nigeria, Kenya, and Ethiopia, among others. Examines apartheid, colonialism, Afro-Marxism, chieftaincy, development, and Pan-Africanism.

AFRS 3464. Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. 4 Hours.

Examines the social dimensions of resource extraction. Focusing mainly on developing nations, studies global issues, including developments in industrial nations, to assess their impact on resource extraction and living and working conditions in resource-rich regions. Uses case studies of key countries producing oil/gas, minerals, and forest/agricultural commodities to illustrate the past/current causes of resource mismanagement; their social consequences; and how public policies, legislation, and financial and human resource management with industrialization can be used to avert or reduce the adverse effects of resource extraction, especially in poor countries. Major theories examined include the resource curse and alternative approaches to problems faced by resource-bearing developing nations.

AFRS 4939. Community Health, Culture, and Development in Kenya. 4 Hours.

Introduces the community health and development arena in Kenya. Community development has been presented as the panacea to many of Africa’s problems, including leadership, democracy, conflict, disease, and poverty. Through teaching, research, and action, the course seeks to expose and sensitize students to the global and local debate on poverty, primary healthcare, and community development. Offers students an opportunity to gain hands-on experiences in some of the major determinants and solutions to poverty and disease by interacting with community stakeholders and organizations in a variety of cultural, rural, and urban settings and through visits to, and participating in, projects run by community-based organizations.

AFRS 4990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

AFRS 4992. Directed Study. 1-4 Hours.

Offers independent work under the direction of members of the department on a chosen topic. Course content depends on instructor. May be repeated without limit.

American Sign Language Courses 

AMSL 1101. Elementary ASL 1. 4 Hours.

Introduces students to American Sign Language (ASL). Students develop expressive and receptive competence in using ASL to fulfill various social functions (such as introductions, explanations of personal history, and descriptions of simple narratives). Additional topics include the use of signing space and further use of nonmanual components including facial expression and body postures.

AMSL 1102. Elementary ASL 2. 4 Hours.

Continues AMSL 1101. Continues development of expressive and receptive competence in using American Sign Language to fulfill various social functions (such as introductions, explanations of personal history, and descriptions of simple narratives). Emphasizes further development of receptive and expressive skills, finger spelling, vocabulary building, grammatical structures; encourages more extensive use of nonmanual behaviors, classifiers, body postures, and signing space. Students are also introduced to regional and ethnic sign variations and political and educational institutions of the Deaf community.

AMSL 1401. Elementary ASL 1 for Healthcare Professionals. 4 Hours.

Focuses on the development of basic conversational skills using a variety of conversational strategies in ASL. This is the first course in a sequence of American Sign Language (ASL) courses offered for students in the Bouvé College of Health Sciences at Northeastern University. ASL is the primary sign language of the Deaf community throughout the United States and much of Canada. Addresses those conversational skills most often used in medical settings. Emphasizes basic rules of grammar, finger spelling, and cultural behaviors of the Deaf community, as well as the ASL vocabulary and phrases needed for a variety of medical situations. Guest speakers share their experiences in various medical settings.

AMSL 1511. ASL Classifiers. 4 Hours.

Seeks to improve understanding of and use of ASL classifiers, including appropriate nonmanual grammatical features and other nonmanual markers. Discusses classifier hand shapes and how movement, location, and orientation of classifiers affect meaning in ASL. Covers eight types of ASL classifiers: semantic, instrumental, descriptive, locative, plural, body part, sport, and elemental. Offers students an opportunity to build on existing classifier vocabulary and eventually use an expanded range of classifiers to express narratives.

AMSL 1990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

AMSL 2101. Intermediate ASL 1. 4 Hours.

Continues the student’s development of expressive and receptive competence in using American Sign Language to fulfill various communicative functions, such as making and responding to inquiries, constructing and comprehending narratives, and engaging in debates. Students also continue to expand their ASL lexicon.

AMSL 2102. Intermediate ASL 2. 4 Hours.

Continues AMSL 2101. Emphasizes further development of receptive and expressive skills, finger spelling, vocabulary building, grammatical structures; encourages more extensive use of nonmanual behaviors, classifiers, body postures, and signing space. Continues exposure to regional and ethnic sign variations and political and educational institutions of Deaf people. Offers intensive practice involving expressive and receptive skills in storytelling and dialogue. Introduces language forms used in American Sign Language poetry and the features of culture as they are displayed in art.

AMSL 2900. Specialized Instruction in ASL. 1-4 Hours.

Designed for individuals whose language skills are at the intermediate level and who seek specially focused language instruction. Such instruction might be the use of the language in specific settings (e.g., media, medical, legal, mental health), or it might be focused on specific conversational nuances of the language. May be repeated without limit.

AMSL 2990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

AMSL 3101. Advanced ASL 1. 4 Hours.

Focuses on continued development of syntactic competence in American Sign Language with particular attention to the use of ASL in formal discourse. Also focuses on lexical semantics and semantic equivalents for multiple meaning English lexical items.

AMSL 3102. Advanced ASL 2. 4 Hours.

Continues AMSL 3101. Focuses on further development and refinement of American Sign Language competence in various discourse settings, predominantly formal and consultative. Continues development of lexical semantics and uses individual diagnostic assessment of ASL competence to determine individual competency goals.

AMSL 3990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

AMSL 4990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

AMSL 4992. Directed Study. 1-4 Hours.

Offers students a way of going beyond work given in the regular curriculum; may also enable students to complete major requirements in certain situations. Priority is given to American Sign Language majors and to juniors and seniors. May be repeated without limit.

Arabic Courses

ARAB 1101. Elementary Arabic 1. 4 Hours.

Designed for students with very little or no prior knowledge of Modern Standard Arabic. Provides a lively introduction to basic oral expression, listening comprehension, and elementary reading and writing. Uses practical vocabulary drawn from realistic situations, and aims at good pronunciation and ease in response. Laboratory practice complements class work, enables students to work aloud at their own speed, reinforces their acquisition of essential structures, and acquaints them with various audio-visual resources.

ARAB 1102. Elementary Arabic 2. 4 Hours.

Continues ARAB 1101. Reviews and continues the study of grammar and basic language skills. Offers progressively more intensive practice in oral and written communication. Laboratory practice complements class work, enables students to work aloud at their own speed, reinforces their acquisition of essential structures, and acquaints them with various audio-visual resources.

ARAB 1301. Elementary Arabic Immersion 1. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in an Arabic-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Focuses on standard Arabic. Offers students an opportunity to develop grammatical and conversational competence. Focuses on oral and aural skills that are enhanced by the immersion environment.

ARAB 1302. Elementary Arabic Immersion 2. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in an Arabic-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Focuses on standard Arabic. Offers students an opportunity to continue to develop grammatical and conversational competence. Focuses on oral and aural skills that are enhanced by the immersion environment.

ARAB 1990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

ARAB 2101. Intermediate Arabic 1. 4 Hours.

Emphasizes further vocabulary building. Offers students an opportunity to master the fine points of grammar through written composition, prepared oral reports, and reading and discussion from current standard Arabic materials.

ARAB 2102. Intermediate Arabic 2. 4 Hours.

Builds on ARAB 2101 and focuses on further development of vocabulary. Offers students an opportunity to continue to master grammar and conversation through written composition, prepared oral reports, and reading and discussion from current standard Arabic materials.

ARAB 2301. Intermediate Arabic Immersion 1. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in an Arabic-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Focuses on standard Arabic. Offers students an opportunity to continue to develop grammatical and conversational competence. Focuses on oral and aural skills that are enhanced by the immersion environment.

ARAB 2302. Intermediate Arabic Immersion 2. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in an Arabic-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Focuses on standard Arabic. Offers students an opportunity to continue to develop grammatical and conversational competence. Focuses on oral and aural skills that are enhanced by the immersion environment.

ARAB 2990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

ARAB 3301. Advanced Arabic Immersion 1. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in an Arabic-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Focuses on standard Arabic as well as the local dialect. Offers students an opportunity to continue to develop grammatical and conversational competence.

ARAB 3302. Advanced Arabic Immersion 2. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in an Arabic-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Focuses on standard Arabic as well as the local dialect. Offers students an opportunity to continue to develop grammatical and conversational competence.

ARAB 3800. Special Topics in Arabic. 1-4 Hours.

Focuses on a unique aspect of the Arabic language. The specific topics are chosen to reflect current developments in the language and expressed student interests. Focuses on the use of the language for specific purposes or its use in specialized settings (e.g., media, business, health). Requires at least an intermediate level of skill in the language. May be repeated up to three times.

ARAB 3990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

ARAB 4800. Special Topics in Arabic. 1-4 Hours.

Focuses on a unique aspect of the Arabic language. The specific topics are chosen to reflect current developments in the language and expressed student interests. Focuses on the use of the language for specific purposes or its use in specialized settings (e.g., media, business, health). Requires at least an advanced level of skill in the language. May be repeated up to four times.

ARAB 4990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

ARAB 4992. Directed Study. 1-4 Hours.

Offers students a way of going beyond work given in the regular curriculum; may also enable students to complete major or minor requirements in certain situations. Priority is given to language majors and to juniors and seniors. May be repeated without limit.

ARAB 5976. Directed Study. 1 Hour.

Offers independent work under the direction of members of the department on a chosen topic. Course content depends on instructor. May be repeated without limit.

Chinese

CHNS 1101. Elementary Chinese 1. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who have very little or no prior knowledge of Chinese. Provides a lively introduction to basic oral expression, listening comprehension, and elementary reading and writing. Each lesson incorporates helpful information about daily life in China and the varied cultures within the world of Chinese speakers. Laboratory practice complements class work, enables students to work aloud at their own speed, reinforces their acquisition of essential structures, and acquaints them with a vast library of audio-visual resources. Focuses on Mandarin Chinese; students who wish to speak another dialect of Chinese should consult instructor for proper placement.

CHNS 1102. Elementary Chinese 2. 4 Hours.

Continues CHNS 1101. Reviews and continues the study of grammar and basic language skills. Offers progressively more intensive practice in oral and written communication. Laboratory practice complements class work, enables students to work aloud at their own speed, reinforces their acquisition of essential structures, and acquaints them with a vast library of audio-visual resources.

CHNS 1301. Elementary Chinese Immersion 1. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in a Chinese-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Focuses on standard Chinese. Offers students an opportunity to develop grammatical and conversational competence. Focuses on oral and aural skills that are enhanced by the immersion environment.

CHNS 1302. Elementary Chinese Immersion 2. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in a Chinese-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Focuses on standard Chinese. Offers students an opportunity to continue to develop grammatical and conversational competence. Focuses on oral and aural skills that are enhanced by the immersion environment.

CHNS 1502. Elementary Chinese 2 for Heritage Speakers. 4 Hours.

Designed for those students who have finished CHNS 1501 or equivalent and who have learned basic Chinese reading and writing techniques. Seeks to help them to move on a fast track beyond the beginner level to the intermediate university level. Strongly focuses on Chinese reading and writing skills, with more sophisticated sentences and paragraphs. Offers students an opportunity to develop writing skills to a functional literacy level, allowing them to carry out a number of practical writing tasks. Also aims to prepare students for CHNS 2102. Students who do not meet course prerequisites may seek permission of instructor.

CHNS 1990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

CHNS 2101. Intermediate Chinese 1. 4 Hours.

Emphasizes further vocabulary building and mastery of fine points of grammar through written composition, prepared oral reports, and reading and discussion from current Chinese periodicals. Allows students to engage actively in communication within various contexts and reviews the more subtle problems of grammar and writing style. This communicative class is for intermediate or advanced learners. It is especially suitable for Asian-American students who have some knowledge of certain Chinese dialects (that is, Cantonese and a level of language competence equal to two semesters of college Chinese) and want to learn Mandarin Chinese through reading, writing, and discussion.

CHNS 2102. Intermediate Chinese 2. 4 Hours.

Continues CHNS 2101. Emphasizes further vocabulary building and mastery of fine points of grammar through written composition, prepared oral reports, and reading and discussion from current Chinese periodicals.

CHNS 2301. Intermediate Chinese Immersion 1. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in a Chinese-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Offers students an opportunity to continue to develop grammatical and conversational competence. Focuses on oral and aural skills that are enhanced by the immersion environment.

CHNS 2302. Intermediate Chinese Immersion 2. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in a Chinese-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Offers students an opportunity to continue to develop grammatical and conversational competence. Focuses on oral and aural skills that are enhanced by the immersion environment.

CHNS 2990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

CHNS 3101. Advanced Chinese 1. 4 Hours.

Stresses the fundamentals of Chinese to promote effective self-expression through speaking and writing and to explore the idiomatic aspects of the language. Through progressive class discussions and oral and written commentaries, students analyze a contemporary Chinese novel or a Chinese cultural reader, screenplay, or collection of short stories. The course strives, first, to help students read and comprehend modern Chinese writing with confidence and to be able to talk and write about it in good Chinese; and second, to provide preparation for advanced courses.

CHNS 3102. Advanced Chinese 2. 4 Hours.

Continues CHNS 3101. Enhances and reinforces those practical language and communication skills students encounter when they are abroad.

CHNS 3301. Advanced Chinese Immersion 1. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in a Chinese-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Offers students an opportunity to continue to develop grammatical and conversational competence.

CHNS 3302. Advanced Chinese Immersion 2. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in a Chinese-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Offers students an opportunity to continue to develop grammatical and conversational competence.

CHNS 3800. Special Topics in Chinese. 1-4 Hours.

Focuses on a unique aspect of the Chinese language. The specific topics are chosen to reflect current developments in the language and expressed student interests. Focuses on the use of the language for specific purposes or its use in specialized settings (e.g., media, business, health). Requires at least an intermediate level of skill in the language. May be repeated up to three times.

CHNS 3990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

CHNS 4101. Advanced Proficiency Chinese 1. 4 Hours.

Designed mainly for students of Chinese as a foreign language at a high intermediate or beginning advanced level of proficiency as designated by the American Council on Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) standards (or third-year Chinese language at universities). Seeks to help students perform most informal and formal language tasks with ease, confidence, and competence. Also seeks to strengthen understanding of contemporary Chinese culture and social environment, such as changing social values and contemporary popular culture. Offers students an opportunity to develop advanced language skills through integrated activities in listening, speaking, reading, and writing and to express complicated and abstract ideas. Students who do not meet course prerequisites may seek permission of instructor.

CHNS 4102. Advanced Proficiency Chinese 2. 4 Hours.

Builds upon the skills developed in previous Chinese courses. Seeks to enable students to accurately communicate detailed narratives and opinions in both spoken and written form. Offers students an opportunity to learn to provide structured arguments to support their opinions, to correctly use quantifiers and hypotheticals, and to develop good control of a full range of grammatical structures and a fairly wide general vocabulary. Students who do not meet course prerequisites may seek permission of instructor.

CHNS 4202. Advanced Proficiency Chinese 2—BSIB. 4 Hours.

Designed to meet the special needs of international business students. Builds on CHNS 4201. Offers students an opportunity to continue to build vocabulary and master fine points of grammar through written composition, prepared oral reports, and reading and discussion based on assigned material. International business majors only.

CHNS 4800. Special Topics in Chinese. 1-4 Hours.

Focuses on a unique aspect of the Chinese language. The specific topics are chosen to reflect current developments in the language and expressed student interests. Topics focus on the use of the language for specific purposes or its use in specialized settings (e.g., media, business, health). Requires at least an advanced level of skill in the language. May be repeated up to four times.

CHNS 4990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

CHNS 4992. Directed Study. 1-4 Hours.

Offers students a way of going beyond work given in the regular curriculum; may also enable students to complete major or minor requirements in certain situations. Priority is given to language majors and to juniors and seniors. May be repeated without limit.

CHNS 5976. Directed Study. 1 Hour.

Offers independent work under the direction of members of the department on a chosen topic. Course content depends on instructor. May be repeated without limit.

Foreign Language Courses 

FLNG 1990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

FLNG 2990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

FLNG 3990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

French Courses

FRNH 1101. Elementary French 1. 4 Hours.

Designed for students with very little or no prior knowledge of French. Provides a lively introduction to basic oral expression, listening comprehension, and elementary reading and writing. Each lesson incorporates helpful information about daily life in France and the varied cultures within the world of French speakers. Laboratory practice complements class work, enables students to work aloud at their own speed, reinforces their acquisition of essential structures, and acquaints them with a vast library of audio-visual resources.

FRNH 1102. Elementary French 2. 4 Hours.

Continues FRNH 1101. Reviews and continues the study of grammar and basic language skills. Offers progressively more intensive practice in oral and written communication. Laboratory practice complements class work, enables students to work aloud at their own speed, reinforces their acquisition of essential structures, and acquaints them with a vast library of audio-visual resources.

FRNH 1302. Elementary French Immersion 2. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in a French-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Offers students an opportunity to continue to develop grammatical and conversational competence. Focuses on oral and aural skills that are enhanced by the immersion environment.

FRNH 1990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

FRNH 2101. Intermediate French 1. 4 Hours.

Emphasizes further vocabulary building and mastery of fine points of grammar through written composition, prepared oral reports, and reading and discussion from current French periodicals.

FRNH 2102. Intermediate French 2. 4 Hours.

Continues FRNH 2101. Stresses the fundamentals of French to promote effective self-expression through speaking and writing and to explore the idiomatic aspects of the language. Through progressive class discussions and oral and written commentaries, students analyze a contemporary French novel or a French cultural reader, screenplay, or collection of short stories. Strives to help students read and comprehend modern French writing with confidence, and to be able to talk and write about it in good French. Provides preparation for advanced courses.

FRNH 2301. Intermediate French Immersion 1. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in a French-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Offers students an opportunity to continue to develop grammatical and conversational competence. Focuses on oral and aural skills that are enhanced by the immersion environment.

FRNH 2302. Intermediate French Immersion 2. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in a French-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Offers students an opportunity to continue to develop grammatical and conversational competence. Focuses on oral and aural skills that are enhanced by the immersion environment.

FRNH 2990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

FRNH 3101. Advanced French 1. 4 Hours.

Continues further development of vocabulary. Offers students an opportunity to continue to master grammar and conversation through advanced reading, composition, grammar review, and listening skills. Whenever possible, offers students an opportunity to engage in local community activities to enhance communication skills and cultural knowledge.

FRNH 3102. Advanced French 2. 4 Hours.

Builds on FRNH 3101 and continues further development of vocabulary. Offers students an opportunity to continue to master grammar and conversation through advanced reading, composition, grammar review, and listening skills. Whenever possible, offers students an opportunity to engage in local community activities to enhance communication skills and cultural knowledge.

FRNH 3301. Advanced French Immersion 1. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in a French-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Offers students an opportunity to continue to develop grammatical and conversational competence.

FRNH 3302. Advanced French Immersion 2. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in a French-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Offers students an opportunity to continue to develop grammatical and conversational competence.

FRNH 3900. Specialized Instruction in French. 1-4 Hours.

Designed for individuals whose language skills are at an advanced level and who seek specially focused language instruction. Such instruction might be the use of the language in specific settings, or it might be focused on specific conversational nuances of the language. Requires at least an advanced level of competence in the language. May be repeated without limit.

FRNH 3990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

FRNH 4201. Advanced Proficiency French 1—BSIB. 4 Hours.

Designed to meet the special needs of international business students. Builds on FRNH 3202. Offers students an opportunity to continue building vocabulary and master fine points of grammar through written composition, prepared oral reports, and reading and discussion based on assigned material. Restricted to international business majors only.

FRNH 4202. Advanced Proficiency French 2—BSIB. 4 Hours.

Designed to meet the special needs of international business students. Builds on FRNH 4201. Offers students an opportunity to continue building vocabulary and master fine points of grammar through written composition, prepared oral reports, and reading and discussion based on assigned material. Restricted to international business majors only.

FRNH 4800. Special Topics in French. 1-4 Hours.

Focuses on a unique aspect of the French language. The specific topics are chosen to reflect current developments in the language and expressed student interests. Focuses on the use of the language for specific purposes or its use in specialized settings (e.g., media, business, health). Requires att least an advanced level of skill in the language. May be repeated up to four times.

FRNH 4990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

FRNH 4992. Directed Study. 1-4 Hours.

Offers students a way of going beyond work given in the regular curriculum; may also enable students to complete major or minor requirements in certain situations. Priority is given to language majors and to juniors and seniors. May be repeated without limit.

FRNH 5976. Directed Study. 1 Hour.

Offers independent work under the direction of members of the department on a chosen topic. Course content depends on instructor. May be repeated without limit.

German Courses

GRMN 1101. Elementary German 1. 4 Hours.

Designed for students with very little or no prior knowledge of German. Provides a lively introduction to basic oral expression, listening comprehension, and elementary reading and writing. Each lesson incorporates helpful information about daily life in German. Laboratory practice complements class work, enables students to work aloud at their own speed, reinforces their acquisition of essential structures, and acquaints them with a vast library of audio-visual resources.

GRMN 1102. Elementary German 2. 4 Hours.

Continues GRMN 1101. Includes completion of basic grammatical usage, reading of contemporary German material, and increased stress on oral and aural skills.

GRMN 1990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

GRMN 2101. Intermediate German 1. 4 Hours.

Emphasizes further vocabulary building. Offers students an opportunity to master the fine points of grammar through written composition, prepared oral reports, and reading and discussion from contemporary German materials.

GRMN 2102. Intermediate German 2. 4 Hours.

Builds on GRMN 2101 and focuses on further development of vocabulary. Offers students an opportunity to continue to master grammar and conversation through written composition, prepared oral reports, and reading and discussion from contemporary German materials.

GRMN 2990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

GRMN 3800. Special Topics in German. 1-4 Hours.

Focuses on a unique aspect of the German language. The specific topics are chosen to reflect current developments in the language and expressed student interests. Focuses on the use of the language for specific purposes or its use in specialized settings (e.g., media, business, health). Requires at least an intermediate level of skill in the language. May be repeated up to three times.

GRMN 3990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

GRMN 4800. Special Topics in German. 1-4 Hours.

Focuses on a unique aspect of the German language. The specific topics are chosen to reflect current developments in the language and expressed student interests. Focuses on the use of the language for specific purposes or its use in specialized settings (e.g., media, business, health). Requires at least an advanced level of skill in the language. May be repeated up to four times.

GRMN 4990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

GRMN 5976. Directed Study. 1 Hour.

Offers independent work under the direction of members of the department on a chosen topic. Course content depends on instructor. May be repeated without limit.

Greek Courses

GREK 1990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

GREK 2990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

GREK 3990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

GREK 4990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

Hebrew Courses

HBRW 1101. Elementary Hebrew 1. 4 Hours.

Designed for students with little or no prior knowledge of Hebrew. Presents a lively introduction to basic oral expression, listening comprehension, and elementary reading and writing. Uses practical vocabulary drawn from realistic situations, and aims at good pronunciation and ease in response.

HBRW 1102. Elementary Hebrew 2. 4 Hours.

Continues HBRW 1101. Includes continued focus on oral expression, listening comprehension, and elementary reading and writing. Expands functional and practical vocabulary base drawn from realistic situations and focuses on grammatical accuracy. Continues to focus on good pronunciation and ease of response.

HBRW 1990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

HBRW 2990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

HBRW 3990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

HBRW 4990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

HBRW 4992. Directed Study. 1-4 Hours.

Offers students a way of going beyond work given in the regular curriculum; may also enable students to complete major or minor requirements in certain situations. Priority is given to language majors and to juniors and seniors. May be repeated without limit.

HBRW 4993. Independent Study. 1-4 Hours.

Offers independent work under the direction of members of the department on a chosen topic. Course content depends on instructor. May be repeated up to three times.

Italian Courses

ITLN 1101. Elementary Italian 1. 4 Hours.

Designed for students with very little or no prior knowledge of Italian. Provides a lively introduction to basic oral expression, listening comprehension, and elementary reading and writing. Each lesson incorporates helpful information about daily life in Italy and the varied cultures within the world of Italian speakers. Laboratory practice complements class work, enables students to work aloud at their own speed, reinforces their acquisition of essential structures, and acquaints them with a vast library of audio-visual resources.

ITLN 1102. Elementary Italian 2. 4 Hours.

Continues ITLN 1101. Reviews and continues the study of grammar and basic language skills. Offers progressively more intensive practice in oral and written communication. Laboratory practice complements class work, enables students to work aloud at their own speed, reinforces their acquisition of essential structures, and acquaints them with a vast library of audio-visual resources.

ITLN 1301. Elementary Italian Immersion 1. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in an Italian-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Offers students an opportunity to develop grammatical and conversational competence. Focuses on oral and aural skills that are enhanced by the immersion environment.

ITLN 1302. Elementary Italian Immersion 2. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in an Italian-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Offers students an opportunity to continue to develop grammatical and conversational competence. Focuses on oral and aural skills that are enhanced by the immersion environment.

ITLN 1990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

ITLN 2101. Intermediate Italian 1. 4 Hours.

Emphasizes further vocabulary building and mastery of fine points of grammar through written composition, prepared oral reports, and reading and discussion from current Italian periodicals.

ITLN 2102. Intermediate Italian 2. 4 Hours.

Continues ITLN 2101. Emphasizes further vocabulary building and mastery of fine points of grammar through written composition, prepared oral reports, and reading and discussion from current Italian periodicals.

ITLN 2301. Intermediate Italian Immersion 1. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in an Italian-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Offers students an opportunity to continue to develop grammatical and conversational competence. Focuses on oral and aural skills that are enhanced by the immersion environment.

ITLN 2302. Intermediate Italian Immersion 2. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in an Italian-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Offers students an opportunity to continue to develop grammatical and conversational competence. Focuses on oral and aural skills that are enhanced by the immersion environment.

ITLN 2990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

ITLN 3101. Advanced Italian 1. 4 Hours.

Stresses the fundamentals of Italian to promote effective self-expression through speaking and writing and to explore the idiomatic aspects of the language. Through progressive class discussions and oral and written commentaries, students analyze a contemporary Italian novel or a Italian cultural reader, screenplay, or collection of short stories. The course strives, first, to help students read and comprehend modern Italian writing with confidence and to be able to talk and write about it in good Italian; and second, to provide preparation for advanced courses.

ITLN 3301. Advanced Italian Immersion 1. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in an Italian-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Offers students an opportunity to continue to develop grammatical and conversational competence.

ITLN 3302. Advanced Italian Immersion 2. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in an Italian-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Focuses on standard Italian as well as the local dialect. Offers students an opportunity to continue to develop grammatical and conversational competence.

ITLN 3990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

ITLN 4990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

ITLN 4991. Research. 4 Hours.

Offers an opportunity to conduct research under faculty supervision. May be repeated without limit.

ITLN 4992. Directed Study. 1-4 Hours.

Offers students a way of going beyond work given in the regular curriculum; may also enable students to complete major or minor requirements in certain situations. Priority is given to language majors and to juniors and seniors. May be repeated without limit.

Japanese Courses

JPNS 1101. Elementary Japanese 1. 4 Hours.

Introduces basic grammar, sentence patterns, and vocabulary of Japanese with emphasis on spoken Japanese. Includes an introduction to the hiragana and katakana syllabaries in the written component. Designed for students with no previous knowledge of Japanese.

JPNS 1102. Elementary Japanese 2. 4 Hours.

Continues JPNS 1101. Emphasizes the development of oral skills; secondary emphasis is on reading. Offers students the opportunity to learn basic grammatical patterns, expand vocabulary, and improve communication skills in modern Japanese. Includes the introduction to kanji characters in the written component.

JPNS 1990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

JPNS 2101. Intermediate Japanese 1. 4 Hours.

Emphasizes further vocabulary building. Offers students an opportunity to master the fine points of grammar through written composition, prepared oral reports, and reading and discussion from contemporary Japanese materials.

JPNS 2102. Intermediate Japanese 2. 4 Hours.

Builds on JPNS 2101 and focuses on further development of vocabulary. Offers students an opportunity to continue to master grammar and conversation through written composition, prepared oral reports, and reading and discussion from contemporary Japanese materials.

JPNS 2301. Intermediate Japanese Immersion 1. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in a Japanese-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Offers students an opportunity to continue to develop grammatical and conversational competence. Focuses on oral and aural skills that are enhanced by the immersion environment.

JPNS 2302. Intermediate Japanese Immersion 2. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in a Japanese-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Offers students an opportunity to continue to develop grammatical and conversational competence. Focuses on oral and aural skills that are enhanced by the immersion environment.

JPNS 2990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

JPNS 3101. Advanced Japanese 1. 4 Hours.

Continues further development of vocabulary. Offers students an opportunity to continue to master grammar and conversation through advanced reading, composition, grammar review, and listening skills. Whenever possible, offers students an opportunity to engage in local community activities to enhance communication skills and cultural knowledge.

JPNS 3102. Advanced Japanese 2. 4 Hours.

Builds on JPNS 3101 and continues further development of vocabulary. Offers students an opportunity to continue to master grammar and conversation through advanced reading, composition, grammar review, and listening skills. Whenever possible, offers students an opportunity to engage in local community activities to enhance communication skills and cultural knowledge.

JPNS 3301. Advanced Japanese Immersion 1. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in a Japanese-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Offers students an opportunity to continue to develop grammatical and conversational competence.

JPNS 3302. Advanced Japanese Immersion 2. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in a Japanese-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Offers students an opportunity to continue to develop grammatical and conversational competence.

JPNS 3900. Specialized Instruction in Japanese. 1-4 Hours.

Designed for individuals whose language skills are at an advanced level and who seek specially focused language instruction. Such instruction might be the use of the language in specific settings, or it might be focused on specific conversational nuances of the language. Requires at least an advanced level of competence in the language. May be repeated without limit.

JPNS 3990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

JPNS 4990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

JPNS 4992. Directed Study. 1-4 Hours.

Offers students a way of going beyond work given in the regular curriculum; may also enable students to complete major or minor requirements in certain situations. Priority is given to language majors and to juniors and seniors. May be repeated without limit.

JPNS 5976. Directed Study. 1 Hour.

Offers independent work under the direction of members of the department on a chosen topic. Course content depends on instructor. May be repeated without limit.

Language, Literature, and Culture Courses

CLTR 1000. Cultures, Societies, and Global Studies at Northeastern. 1 Hour.

Introduces first-year students in the College of Social Sciences and Humanities to the liberal arts in general. Seeks to familiarize them with their major, to help them develop the academic skills necessary to succeed (analytical ability and critical thinking), to provide grounding in the culture and values of the university community, to help them develop interpersonal skills, and to familiarize them with all skills needed to become a successful university student.

CLTR 1120. Introduction to Languages, Literature, and Culture. 4 Hours.

Examines the rich interconnections between literature and language and the culture that supports them. Discusses the relationship of language to literature and investigates how language and literatures are embedded in culture. Addresses several very broad and important questions, such as the relationship between language and culture; the relationship between language and thought; the definition of cultural relativism; and how ethical dilemmas are expressed in different cultures. Explores the relationship of esthetic and rhetorical traditions in given languages to the culture from which they sprang. In this context, examines the extremely interesting case of American Sign Language and how a gestural language sheds light on these issues.

CLTR 1140. Italian Society through Film. 4 Hours.

Explores the past three decades of Italian society through film using screenings, lectures, and discussions. Topics covered include the European immigration crisis; complex Italian politics; the modern-day Mafia; and Italian societal constructs, including gender norms, the family, and workplace dynamics. Examines the relationship of filmmaking and society. Explores positionality from multiple lenses. Seeks to foster student reflection and critical thinking through guided discussions and writing assignments and to broaden students’ awareness of Italian culture and society by considering social and ethical concerns presented in films. Students examine human nature and social behavior in the face of globalization and social change in contemporary Italian society. Includes the works of influential Italian filmmakers, such as Comencini, Virzì, Ozpetek, Muccino, and Moretti.

CLTR 1240. Latin American Film. 4 Hours.

Examines contemporary works of cinematography in Latin America, focusing on the culture and imagery of the Spanish-, French-, and Portuguese-speaking peoples of the Western hemisphere, including the United States. Critically engages—from a technical (cinematographic), genre, and sociohistorical perspective—topics of history, memory, and cultural resiliency; colonialism, racism, and patriarchy; dictatorship, revolution, and democratization; and nationalism, dependency, and globalization. Conducted in English; most films are in French, Portuguese, or Spanish with English subtitles.

CLTR 1260. Japanese Film. 4 Hours.

Provides an introduction to Japanese film through works by such great masters as Kurosawa, Mizoguchi, and Ozu, as well as works by new directors from the 1980s and 1990s such as Tami, Morita, and Suo. Studies both form and content; relates major works to Japanese culture. Conducted in English.

CLTR 1280. French Film and Culture. 4 Hours.

Provides an introduction to some of the qualities that have made French film one of the great national cinemas. Focuses on both form and content; relates outstanding directors’ major works to the French culture and society of their period. Conducted in English.

CLTR 1500. Modern Chinese History and Culture. 4 Hours.

Introduces modern Chinese history and culture through literary works, films, and historical texts. Examines political, social, and cultural changes in China since 1800: the decline of empire; the New Culture Movement of the 1920s; the rise of nationalism and rural revolution; the changing roles of women; the Cultural Revolution of the 1960s; and China’s cinematic, literary, and economic engagement with the world since 1978. Taught in English and open to all undergraduates. CLTR 1500 and HIST 1500 are cross-listed.

CLTR 1501. Introduction to French Culture. 4 Hours.

Explores contemporary France and French mentality through lectures, screenings, readings, and discussions. Topics covered include the modern vs. the traditional family, social reproduction, gender norms, culture and social distinction, the concept of “grandeur,” identity, and immigration. Offers students an opportunity to evaluate historical and sociological readings, films, documentaries, and TV commercials; to compare French and American systems; and to consider contemporary human and social behaviors in the face of globalization.

CLTR 1502. Introduction to Arabic Culture. 4 Hours.

Designed to provide students with an in-depth survey of Arabic culture. Familiarizes students with the roots of one of the richest and oldest cultures but also seeks to satisfy their curiosity concerning certain social norms, patterns, and cultural traits in contemporary Arabic societies. Examines cultural manifestations ranging from the hijab (head covering), Jihad (holy struggle), human rights, polygamy, gender relations, public behavior, and many others by providing the historical backgrounds for these customs and traditions as well as exploring how they are now perceived in various Arab societies as well as in the West. Seeks to provide students with an appreciation for this multifaceted culture but most importantly a broad perspective on Arabic culture within the context of the universal human experience.

CLTR 1503. Introduction to Italian Culture. 4 Hours.

Examines chronologically the main aspects of Italian culture, concentrating on the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, and the modern, postunification period. Topics include art, philosophy, literature, architecture, film, and historical background. Other topics address significant personages in Italian culture, such as Dante, Boccaccio, Piero della Francesca, Leonardo da Vinci, Alberti, Pico della Mirandola, Michelangelo, and Machiavelli; the differences between northern and southern Italy; and the nature of Italy’s cultural heritage and its influence and status today. Conducted in English.

CLTR 1504. Introduction to Spanish Culture. 4 Hours.

Examines chronologically the forces that have forged Spanish culture and have made Spain the nation it is today. Traces the development of Spain from the prehistoric caves of Altamira to the present. Observes past and present concerns such as divorce and abortion in a Catholic country, education, the role of women, linguistic diversity, separatism and terrorism, and the incorporation of Spain into the European Community. Incorporates history, sociology, anthropology, geography, economics, and politics. Conducted in English.

CLTR 1505. Introduction to Latin American Culture. 4 Hours.

Introduces students to Latin American culture through the study of a broad array of literary and critical writings by Latin American authors and selected films from Latin America. Authors include Sor Juana, Garcia Marquez, and Jorge Amado. Conducted in English.

CLTR 1506. Introduction to Chinese Popular Culture. 4 Hours.

Provides a comprehensive examination of modern Chinese popular culture in the People’s Republic of China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. From film to literature, from music to theatre, this course probes popular culture as it has manifested itself and traces its sociopolitical, aesthetic, and affective impact on modern China, with special attention to negotiations between the elite and the popular discourses.

CLTR 1510. French Gastronomy and Culture. 4 Hours.

Analyzes the relationship between gastronomy, good manners, and French society since the Middle Ages, which is deeply ingrained in French cultural fabric and celebrated around the world as French savoir-faire and savoir-vivre Explores cultural practices and the role of religious, political, social, and economic forces in shaping the formation of self, class distinction and cultural capital, gender roles and identity construction, permanence and change, and myth and reality in times of transition. When relevant, the course compares the French experience with other countries’ modus operandi. Includes films; documentaries; an interview with a French chef; popular culture texts (cookbooks, menus, satirical food critic columns); and philosophical, historical, sociological, and literary texts from Stephen Mennell, Norbert Elias, Pierre Bourdieu, Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, Molière, Alexandre Dumas, and Emile Zola.

CLTR 1700. Introduction to Japanese Pop Culture. 4 Hours.

Provides an introduction to Japanese popular culture through critical analysis of mass media such as film, television, comics, and animation. Investigates various social and cultural issues, such as gender, family, and education. Films and videos supplement readings. Conducted in English.

CLTR 1990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

CLTR 2001. World Cultures through Film. 4 Hours.

Introduces the study of world cinema from the past several decades as a form of artistic and cultural expression. Emphasizes the way that different ethnicities and cultures mix and even clash within national boundaries. Readings cover such topics as the postcolonial inheritance, immigration, the boundaries of class, the pressures of modernization, ethnic identities, and historical memory. Examines storytelling in its multicultural aspects and deals with the diverse influences of entertainment cinema and art cinema, as well as measures taken by countries to limit the influx of foreign films in order to protect their own cultural productivity. One overall concern of the course is the place of film in contemporary global culture.

CLTR 2450. Postcolonial Literature. 4 Hours.

Examines the literature and cultures of postcolonial nations in the Caribbean, Africa, and Asia. Designed to familiarize students with the cultural paradigms and transnational experiences of colonialism. Focuses on the variety of artistic strategies employed by writers to communicate contemporary postcolonial themes such as neocolonialism, nationalism, Third-World feminism, and diaspora. CLTR 2450 and ENGL 2450 are cross-listed.

CLTR 2715. New Media Narratives in Latin America: Local and Global Dimensions. 4 Hours.

Focuses on Latin America as a region of rich technological creativity in the digital media landscape of the 21st century. Explores how social networks, computational technologies, and digital devices are subject to creative hacks that incorporate alternative economies and knowledge models and enact social and artistic movements. Examines how hacks or adaptations of new media traverse the local dimensions of the current global technocultural landscape and invite reflection on the multiplex relationships fostered by digital media around the world. Offers students an opportunity to analyze cultural artifacts and phenomena in Latin America in a comparative global setting and engage in innovative expression by creating reflexive multimedia artifacts of their own, replicating the creative and adaptive uses studied in the class. Taught in English.

CLTR 2990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

CLTR 3418. Nationalism. 4 Hours.

Explores contending theories of identity and nationalism—a powerful force in international and domestic politics. Examines topics such as the process of identity creation, the choice of national symbols, how group boundaries are established, the role of identity in conflict and state building, and the debate over nationalism’s constructed or primordial nature. POLS 3418 and CLTR 3418 are cross-listed.

CLTR 3450. Israeli and Palestinian Film. 4 Hours.

Seeks to open up a dialogue between two cultures that coexist in the same geographical space: the Israeli and the Palestinian. Explores questions of history, identity, conflict, and coexistence through documentary and fiction films. Films are contextualized through extensive readings in secondary sources, poetry, and works of fiction. Requires students to complete several short papers and a final research paper.

CLTR 3500. French Culture and the Arts. 4 Hours.

Designed to provide students with an overview of French culture with a particular focus on its rich artistic heritage as manifested down through history and in popular culture today. Includes such areas as language, art, architecture, cinema, music, literature, urban and landscape design, fashion, folklore, rites, rituals, and customs. Studies the distinctive characteristics of France’s many regions in light of their contributions to the vast tapestry that comprises French culture. Conducted in French.

CLTR 3715. New Narratives: Latin America after 1989. 4 Hours.

Focuses on film, literature, and new media. This course offers a panoramic view of the Latin American cultural production after 1989, attempting to characterize the variety of styles and trends. Relates the texts and movies to the socio, political, and economic issues of the moment, i.e., implementation of neoliberal democracies, globalization, neocolonialism, resistance, new social movements, etc. Also studies links between Latin America and the United States and between Latin America and Spain. Focuses on texts written by relatively young authors. Taught in Spanish.

CLTR 3725. Representing Violence and Human Rights in Latin America. 4 Hours.

Studies the idea of violence and how it relates to the social, economic, and political situation in Latin America. Students watch films and documentaries and read novels, testimonies, short stories, and poems of several artistic movements to study how violence is represented/visualized in these texts. Also addresses the topics of historical memory and human rights by using basic theoretical texts about the concept of violence, memory, and human rights. Studies four moments in recent Latin American history: Mexico 1968, Shining Path and Peru in the 1980s and 1990s, the genocide in Guatemala, and the dictatorships in the Southern Cone. Taught in Spanish.

CLTR 3990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

CLTR 4944. Cultural Engagement Abroad. 4 Hours.

Designed for a language-based Dialogue of Civilizations. Complements the intensive language course that students take while on a language-based Dialogue. Offers students an opportunity to obtain an in-depth knowledge of the contemporary culture(s) of the country of the Dialogue and how that culture differs from or is similar to contemporary American cultural values and practices. In addition to regular in-class lectures and activities, offers structured opportunities to engage in dialogue with businesspeople, scholars, educators, artists, government officials, journalists, students, senior citizens, and/or local residents about their perspectives on various topics and issues. May be repeated up to three times.

CLTR 4990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

CLTR 4992. Directed Study. 1-4 Hours.

Offers students a way of going beyond work given in the regular curriculum; may also enable students to complete major or minor requirements in certain situations. Priority is given to language majors and to juniors and seniors. May be repeated without limit.

LANG 1990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

LANG 2990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

LANG 4700. Capstone Seminar. 4 Hours.

Provides the graduating student the opportunity to integrate the intellectual aspects of the program with its experiential elements, especially the study-abroad portion of the students’ program.

LANG 4800. Special Topics in Language. 1-4 Hours.

Focuses on a particular theme of language and society that involves several languages (e.g., common literary themes, treatment of fairy tales, or folklore). The specific topic is chosen to reflect relevant comparative themes and expressed student interests. Requires an advanced level of skill in a language. May be repeated without limit.

LANG 4990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

LANG 4992. Directed Study. 1-4 Hours.

Offers students a way of going beyond work given in the regular curriculum; may also enable students to complete major or minor requirements in certain situations. Priority is given to language majors and to juniors and seniors. May be repeated without limit.

LITR 1150. Muslim Writers and the Qur’an (in English Translations). 4 Hours.

Covers selected writers who fairly represent a wide range of Muslim attitudes to the Qur’an. Muslim writers use the Qur’an for political and social criticism, question Qur’anic texts related to the status of women, or question the authenticity of the Qur’an itself. After 9/11, however, Muslim writers in the West have presented characters who find in the Qur’an a source of positive powers. Readings are drawn from works such as the following: Leila Aboulela, Minaret; Monica Ali, Brick Lane; Gamal Al-Ghitani, Zayni Barakat; Tehmina Durrani, Blasphemy; Nuruddin Farah, Maps; Taha Hussein, An Egyptian Childhood; Yusuf Idris, “A House of Flesh”; C. H. Kane, Ambiguous Adventure; Hanif Kureishi, The Black Album and “My Son the Fanatic”; Naguib Mahfouz, The Children of the Alley.

LITR 1250. Dante’s Inferno and Medieval Italian Culture. 4 Hours.

Introduces an overview of Dante’s Commedia focusing on the first book, “Inferno,” read in English translation. Examines the descending stages of hell; their meanings; and their social, political, and historical relevance for Dante’s society. Dante’s Divina Commedia created a powerful world, one that had a deep meaning for both the author and the reader of that time. But can one so easily understand it as constructed by the Commedia in the Middle Ages? Does Dante’s world have relevance today as well? Some scholars may say it does more so than ever. If so, how? Through analysis of selected chapters (Canti), students have an opportunity to attempt to establish their possible relevance to the modern human condition and perhaps even to themselves.

LITR 1990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

LITR 2850. Apps, Memes, and Bots: Global Literature in the Age of the Internet. 4 Hours.

Introduces students to new and emerging forms of electronic literature like augmented reality applications, participatory narratives, literary apps, memes, and social media bots. Focuses on born digital literature created around the world. Explores the theories and approaches to reading electronic works in a globalized world. Offers students an opportunity to read, critique, and author works of electronic literature. Although a reading knowledge of a second language can enhance the students’ experience, the course is fully taught in English.

LITR 2990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

LITR 3500. International Perspectives. 4 Hours.

Uses major representative works of fiction from the modern European tradition to introduce students to an array of theoretical and critical perspectives (cognitivism, Marxism, formalism, and identity politics). Major authors include Dostoevsky, Mann, Kafka, Camus, Duras, and Achebe. Team-taught in English by members of the modern language department. Serves as an introduction to literature for language majors, who can get credit in their field of concentration by reading some of the works in the original language.

LITR 3990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

LITR 4560. Masterpieces of Spanish Literature: 18th–20th Century. 4 Hours.

Surveys the literature of eighteenth-, nineteenth-, and twentieth-century Spain. Includes the literary movements of romanticism, realism, and the Generation of ‘98. Conducted in Spanish.

LITR 4561. Masterpieces of Spanish Literature: 12th–17th Century. 4 Hours.

Traces the development of Spanish literature from the Middle Ages (las jarchas, El poema del Cid, El libro de buen amor, La Celestina) through the Renaissance and Baroque periods or Golden Age (Garcilaso de la Vega, the picaresque novel, the mystics, Cervantes, Lope de Vega, Calderon). Conducted in Spanish.

LITR 4655. Latin American Literature. 4 Hours.

Offers an overview of the major trends in Latin American narrative, poetry, drama, and essays, from Bernal Diaz through Borges and Bolaño. Studies broad cultural and political contexts, especially the Cold War period and the impact of neoliberalism. Conducted in Spanish.

LITR 4990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

LITR 4992. Directed Study. 1-4 Hours.

Offers students a way of going beyond work given in the regular curriculum; may also enable students to complete major or minor requirements in certain situations. Priority is given to language majors and to juniors and seniors. May be repeated without limit.

Portuguese Courses

PORT 1101. Elementary Portuguese 1. 4 Hours.

Designed for students with very little or no prior knowledge of Portuguese. Presents essentials of Portuguese as it is spoken in Brazil through acquisition of basic skills in speaking, reading, writing, and aural comprehension.

PORT 1102. Elementary Portuguese 2. 4 Hours.

Continues the study of Brazilian Portuguese at the elementary level. Includes completion of basic grammatical usage, reading of contemporary Brazilian material, and increased emphasis on oral and aural skills.

PORT 1990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

PORT 2101. Intermediate Portuguese 1. 4 Hours.

Emphasizes further vocabulary building. Offers students an opportunity to master the fine points of grammar through written composition, prepared oral reports, and reading and discussion from contemporary Portuguese materials.

PORT 2102. Intermediate Portuguese 2. 4 Hours.

Builds on PORT 2101 and focuses on further development of vocabulary. Offers students an opportunity to continue to master grammar and conversation through written composition, prepared oral reports, and reading and discussion from contemporary Portuguese materials.

PORT 2990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

PORT 3900. Specialized Instruction in Portuguese. 1-4 Hours.

Designed for individuals whose language skills are at an advanced level and who seek specially focused language instruction. Such instruction might be the use of the language in specific settings, or it might be focused on specific conversational nuances of the language. Requires at least an advanced level of competence in the language. May be repeated without limit.

PORT 3990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

PORT 4990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

PORT 4992. Directed Study. 1-4 Hours.

Offers students a way of going beyond work given in the regular curriculum; may also enable students to complete major or minor requirements in certain situations. Priority is given to language majors and to juniors and seniors. May be repeated without limit.

Russian Courses

RSSN 1101. Elementary Russian 1. 4 Hours.

Explores the essentials of grammar, practice in pronunciation, acquisition of basic vocabulary, and idiomatic expressions of everyday Russian.

RSSN 1102. Elementary Russian 2. 4 Hours.

Continues RSSN 1101. Studies grammar and spoken and written forms of the language. Covers more advanced features of the language.

RSSN 1301. Elementary Russian Immersion 1. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in a Russian-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Offers students an opportunity to develop grammatical and conversational competence. Focuses on oral and aural skills that are enhanced by the immersion environment.

RSSN 1302. Elementary Russian Immersion 2. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in a Russian-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Offers students an opportunity to continue to develop grammatical and conversational competence. Focuses on oral and aural skills that are enhanced by the immersion environment.

RSSN 1990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

RSSN 2101. Intermediate Russian 1. 4 Hours.

Emphasizes further vocabulary building. Offers students an opportunity to master the fine points of grammar through written composition, prepared oral reports, and reading and discussion from contemporary Russian materials.

RSSN 2102. Intermediate Russian 2. 4 Hours.

Builds on RSSN 2101 and focuses on further development of vocabulary. Offers students an opportunity to continue to master grammar and conversation through written composition, prepared oral reports, and reading and discussion from contemporary Russian materials.

RSSN 2301. Intermediate Russian Immersion 1. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in a Russian-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Offers students an opportunity to continue to develop grammatical and conversational competence. Focuses on oral and aural skills that are enhanced by the immersion environment.

RSSN 2302. Intermediate Russian Immersion 2. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in a Russian-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Offers students an opportunity to continue to develop grammatical and conversational competence. Focuses on oral and aural skills that are enhanced by the immersion environment.

RSSN 2990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

RSSN 3301. Advanced Russian Immersion 1. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in a Russian-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Offers students an opportunity to continue to develop grammatical and conversational competence.

RSSN 3302. Advanced Russian Immersion 2. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in a Russian-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Offers students an opportunity to continue to develop grammatical and conversational competence.

RSSN 3990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

RSSN 4990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

RSSN 4992. Directed Study. 1-4 Hours.

Offers students a way of going beyond work given in the regular curriculum; may also enable students to complete major or minor requirements in certain situations. Priority is given to language majors and to juniors and seniors. May be repeated without limit.

RSSN 4993. Independent Study. 1-4 Hours.

Offers independent work under the direction of members of the department on a chosen topic. Course content depends on instructor. May be repeated up to three times.

Spanish Courses

SPNS 1101. Elementary Spanish 1. 4 Hours.

Designed for students with little or no knowledge of Spanish. Presents essentials of correct Spanish usage through acquisition of basic skills in reading, speaking, writing, and aural comprehension.

SPNS 1102. Elementary Spanish 2. 4 Hours.

Continues SPNS 1101. Includes completion of basic grammatical usage, reading of contemporary Hispanic material, and increased stress on oral and aural skills.

SPNS 1301. Elementary Spanish Immersion 1. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in a Spanish-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Focuses on standard Spanish. Offers students an opportunity to develop grammatical and conversational competence. Focuses on oral and aural skills that are enhanced by the immersion environment.

SPNS 1302. Elementary Spanish Immersion 2. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in a Spanish-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Focuses on standard Spanish. Offers students an opportunity to continue to develop grammatical and conversational competence. Focuses on oral and aural skills that are enhanced by the immersion environment.

SPNS 1402. Elementary Spanish 2 for Healthcare Professionals. 4 Hours.

Reviews the present tense of regular, irregular, yo form irregular, and stem-changing verbs for students who have completed one level of Spanish. Offers students an opportunity to practice different medical scenarios consisting of brief conversations in the consulting room/hospital with the pediatrician, gynecologist, and with the dietician. Explores all the parts of the body and how to conduct a physical exam with a patient in Spanish as well as converse with patients at an elementary level. Students who do not meet course prerequisites may seek permission of instructor.

SPNS 1990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

SPNS 2101. Intermediate Spanish 1. 4 Hours.

Emphasizes further vocabulary building. Offers students an opportunity to master the fine points of grammar through written composition, prepared oral reports, and reading and discussion from contemporary Spanish materials.

SPNS 2102. Intermediate Spanish 2. 4 Hours.

Builds on SPNS 2101 and focuses on further development of vocabulary. Offers students an opportunity to continue to master grammar and conversation through written composition, prepared oral reports, and reading and discussion from contemporary Spanish materials.

SPNS 2201. Intermediate Spanish 1—BSIB. 4 Hours.

Designed to meet the special needs of international business students. Offers advanced grammar topics and continued stress on aural/oral acquisition. Provides some reading of literary texts as well as of popular media.

SPNS 2301. Intermediate Spanish Immersion 1. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in a Spanish-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Focuses on standard Spanish. Offers students an opportunity to continue to develop grammatical and conversational competence. Focuses on oral and aural skills that are enhanced by the immersion environment.

SPNS 2302. Intermediate Spanish Immersion 2. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in a Spanish-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Focuses on standard Spanish. Offers students an opportunity to continue to develop grammatical and conversational competence. Focuses on oral and aural skills that are enhanced by the immersion environment.

SPNS 2401. Intermediate Spanish 1 for Healthcare Professionals. 4 Hours.

Reviews the present tense of regular, irregular, yo form irregular, and stem-changing verbs. Explores the preterite and imperfect tenses and the command forms formal (usted and ustedes). Topics also include por vs. para. Offers students an opportunity to practice a number of different medical scenarios in the emergency room, medical center, hospital, laboratory, and the X-ray room. Reviews the parts of the body and conducting a physical exam with a patient. Students practice taking a medical history and doing an extensive physical exam in Spanish.

SPNS 2402. Intermediate Spanish 2 for Healthcare Professionals. 4 Hours.

Reviews all the preterite and imperfect tenses and introduces the present subjunctive. Offers students an opportunity to practice the command forms formal (ud./uds.) and different medical scenarios as well as to learn a variety of medical procedures and treatments for different illnesses. The course is designed to prepare students to converse with their patients at an intermediate level and discuss a variety of treatments for different medical conditions.

SPNS 2990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

SPNS 3101. Advanced Spanish 1. 4 Hours.

Continues further development of vocabulary. Offers students an opportunity to continue to master grammar and conversation through advanced reading, composition, grammar review, and listening skills. Whenever possible, offers students an opportunity to engage in local community activities to enhance communication skills and cultural knowledge.

SPNS 3102. Advanced Spanish 2. 4 Hours.

Builds on SPNS 3101 and continues further development of vocabulary. Offers students an opportunity to continue to master grammar and conversation through advanced reading, composition, grammar review, and listening skills. Whenever possible, offers students an opportunity to engage in local community activities to enhance communication skills and cultural knowledge.

SPNS 3201. Advanced Spanish 1—BSIB. 4 Hours.

Designed to meet the special needs of international business students. Offers advanced grammar review and expanded student participation. Offers a major project in the language with the possibility of community work in the language.

SPNS 3301. Advanced Spanish Immersion 1. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in a Spanish-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Focuses on standard Spanish as well as the local dialect. Offers students an opportunity to continue to develop grammatical and conversational competence.

SPNS 3302. Advanced Spanish Immersion 2. 4 Hours.

Designed for students who are in a Spanish-speaking country, this is an off-campus immersion course. Focuses on standard Spanish as well as the local dialect. Offers students an opportunity to continue to develop grammatical and conversational competence.

SPNS 3501. Advanced Spanish Conversation: Global Communication. 4 Hours.

Designed for nonnative and native speakers whose language skills are at the advanced level and who seek specialized conversational language instruction. Focuses on current global issues, with particular attention paid to events in the Spanish-speaking world and Latinos in the United States. Offers students an opportunity to enrich vocabulary and enhance oral and written communication. Students who do not meet course prerequisites may seek permission of instructor.

SPNS 3800. Special Topics in Spanish. 1-4 Hours.

Focuses on a unique aspect of the Spanish language. The specific topics are chosen to reflect current developments in the language and expressed student interests. Focuses on the use of the language for specific purposes or its use in specialized settings (e.g., media, business, health). Requires at least an intermediate level of skill in the language. May be repeated up to three times.

SPNS 3900. Specialized Instruction in Spanish. 1-4 Hours.

Designed for individuals whose language skills are at an advanced level and who seek specially focused language instruction. Such instruction might be the use of the language in specific settings, or it might be focused on specific conversational nuances of the language. Requires at least an advanced level of competence in the language. May be repeated without limit.

SPNS 3990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

SPNS 4201. Advanced Proficiency Spanish 1—BSIB. 4 Hours.

Designed for international business students to enhance their ability to communicate effectively in Spanish. Seeks to reinforce grammatical concepts and aims to enrich students’ vocabulary, with emphasis on business vocabulary. Focuses on drills, paired and group activities, dictations, role-playing, reading, translations, and listening to audio materials in order to achieve a living language experience. By engaging students in such activities, the course offers students an opportunity to further develop their cultural understanding and their use of Spanish for business purposes. Restricted to international business majors only.

SPNS 4202. Advanced Proficiency Spanish 2—BSIB. 4 Hours.

Designed for international business students. Offers students an opportunity to continue to develop their ability to communicate effectively in Spanish. Seeks to reinforce grammatical concepts and aims to enrich students’ vocabulary, with emphasis on business vocabulary. Focuses on drills, paired and group activities, dictations, role-playing, reading, translations, and listening to audio materials in order to achieve a living language experience. By engaging students in such activities, the course offers students an opportunity to further develop their cultural understanding and their use of Spanish for business purposes. Restricted to international business majors only.

SPNS 4800. Special Topics in Spanish. 1-4 Hours.

Focuses on a unique aspect of the Spanish language. The specific topics are chosen to reflect current developments in the language and expressed student interests. Focuses on the use of the language for specific purposes or its use in specialized settings (e.g., media, business, health). Requires at least an advanced level of skill in the language. May be repeated up to four times.

SPNS 4990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

SPNS 4992. Directed Study. 1-4 Hours.

Offers students a way of going beyond work given in the regular curriculum; may also enable students to complete major or minor requirements in certain situations. Priority is given to language majors and to juniors and seniors. May be repeated without limit.

Swahili Courses

SWHL 1990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

SWHL 2990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

SWHL 3990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.

SWHL 4990. Elective. 1-4 Hours.

Offers elective credit for courses taken at other academic institutions. May be repeated without limit.