Lee Makowski, PhD
Professor and Chair
212A Lake Hall
The Department of Bioengineering offers students a broad education built on fundamentals in science, mathematics, and engineering, with a focus on the biological applications of engineering. The program is designed to provide a rigorous engineering training along with a comprehensive understanding of the biological constraints intrinsic to designing artificial systems to interface with, augment, replace, repair, or monitor living systems. These constraints depend on the properties of the biological system involved and the functionality that is being created. The living system may be the human body; an ecosystem; or, more broadly, a bioreactor, tissue culture system, or any system with living components. The presence of naturally occurring biological tissue places special constraints on the design and implementation of artificial constructs and their interface to living systems. Bioengineers are engineers with comprehensive understanding of the engineering requirements intrinsic to working within a biological context.
Bioengineering is a relatively new field driven by the recognition that engineering of biological systems or systems that interface with living systems requires a multidisciplinary approach that takes into account the mechanical, electrical, chemical, and materials properties of the biological system. With that in mind, the bioengineering program has been designed to provide a rigorous engineering education that endows a broad understanding of the quantitative analysis of biological systems and a deep expertise in one of four areas of engineering. The curriculum is structured around a core of six courses that quantitatively analyze biological systems from multiple points of view. The core provides the fundamentals of quantitative physiology, electrical engineering in the context of excitable tissues; basics of mechanical engineering in the context of the musculoskeletal system; and thermodynamics, heat transfer, and fluids mechanics within the context of physiological systems. On completion of the core, students choose one of four concentrations (bioimaging and signal processing, cell and tissue engineering, biomechanics, or biomedical devices), which provides the opportunity to develop a deep level of expertise in an important area of bioengineering. The curriculum culminates with a two-semester capstone course to provide experience in design and implementation of a novel bioengineering project.
The program is committed to providing a multidisciplinary education, making connections from the classroom and laboratory to research, co-op, and co-curricular experiences. The curriculum provides fundamentals in mathematics, physical sciences, and engineering science; laboratory experiences; as well as an emphasis on the special considerations intrinsic to design within a biological context. Through the university’s general educational requirements, students gain awareness of the impact of engineering decisions in a broader societal and ethical context. The department encourages professional development through active participation and leadership in student organizations, societies, and departmental activities. As a result, the bioengineering program is designed to prepare students for success in industrial careers; graduate programs; or professional medical, law, and business schools.
The bioengineering program seeks to enable students to apply knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering to design of novel systems interfacing, replacing, augmenting, or repairing living systems; to conduct bioengineering experiments, as well as to analyze and interpret data; to design a system, component, or biological process to meet desired needs within realistic constraints such as economic, environmental, social, political, ethical, safety, manufacturability, and sustainability; to function on teams, including multidisciplinary teams; to identify, formulate, and solve bioengineering problems; to understand professional and ethical responsibility, including protecting the public and the environment by performing work in a safe and environmentally conscious manner; to communicate effectively; to understand the impact of engineering solutions in a global and societal context; to recognize the need for and the ability to engage in lifelong learning; to understand professional behavior, culture, expectations, and contemporary issues; and to use the techniques, skills, and modern engineering tools intrinsic to bioengineering practice.
The bioengineering curriculum is an innovative plan that is continuously and carefully assessed and evaluated to ensure that graduates of the program are fully prepared for success as professional bioengineers and are prepared for graduate or professional school.
Bachelor of Science in Bioengineering (BSBioE)
BIOE 2000. Introduction to Engineering Co-op Education. 1 Hour.
Seeks to prepare students for the first co-op experience. Focuses on skills that provide a basis for successful co-op engagement including expectations and requirements, an introduction to professional credentials, resumé construction, self-assessment and goal setting, interviewing, professional and co-op ethics, issues of diversity in the workplace community, academic planning and decision making, and an introduction to career portfolios. Prereq. GE 1000 and sophomore standing or above; engineering students only.
BIOE 2060. Special Topics in Bioengineering. 4 Hours.
Focuses on topics of timely interest to students of science and engineering. Topic varies from semester to semester. When appropriate, the course takes advantage of unique opportunities afforded by visiting faculty and guests. Prereq. Restricted to students in the College of Engineering, the College of Computer and Information Science, Bouvé College of Health Sciences, and the College of Science.
BIOE 2350. Biomechanics. 4 Hours.
Designed to acquaint students with concepts of stress, strain, and constitutive laws as applied to problems in biomechanics. Introduces rigid body and deformable body mechanics. Focuses on basic foundations of solid mechanics using vectors and tensors. Illustrative examples from tissue and cell biomechanics are given where appropriate. Prereq. (a) BIOL 1111 or BIOL 1115 and (b) MATH 1342 and (c) PHYS 1151, PHYS 1161, or PHYS 1171; bioengineering students only.
BIOE 2355. Quantitative Physiology for Bioengineers. 4 Hours.
Introduces engineering and science students to core knowledge and understanding of physiological systems and processes. Focuses on quantitative analysis of human physiological systems. Topics include the physical and chemical foundations of physiology; coupled forces and flows; electrical, mechanical, and chemical potentials and their conjugated fluxes; and the physiology of excitable tissue. Examines cell structure, function, and homeostasis with a particular focus on membrane transport, osmotic pressure, cell signaling, and cellular energetics. Prereq. (a) MATH 2341 or GE 2361 (either may be taken concurrently) and (b) CHEM 1151, CHEM 1211, or CHEM 1217 and (c) PHYS 1155, PHYS 1165, or PHYS 1175 (any of which may be taken concurrently); restricted to students in the College of Engineering and the College of Science.
BIOE 2365. Bioengineering Measurement, Experimentation, and Statistics. 4 Hours.
Introduces the fundamentals of biomedical data acquisition and statistical analysis. Engineering statistics topics include descriptive statistics, probability distributions, hypothesis testing, analysis of variance, and experiment design. Applies these statistical topics by analyzing data obtained from laboratory exercises in BIOE 2366. Laboratory exercise topics include cell culture, mechanical testing, modeling medical imaging data, 3D printing, and bioprinting. Emphasizes using MATLAB software to analyze data on the computer. Prereq. (a) BIOL 1111 or BIOL 1115 (either of which may be taken concurrently) and (b) MATH 1342 (which may be taken concurrently) and (c) ENGW 1111, ENGW 1102, ENGL 1111, or ENGL 1102; restricted to students in the College of Engineering and in the College of Science. Coreq. BIOE 2366.
BIOE 2366. Lab for BIOE 2365. 1 Hour.
BIOE 3000. Professional Issues in Engineering. 1 Hour.
Offers students an opportunity to reflect on both academic and co-op experiences in the context of planning for the senior year and beyond. Topics include professional and ethical issues; resolving ethical conflicts; awareness of engineers as professionals in a diverse world; strengthening decision-making skills; career portfolios; and lifelong learning needs, goals, and strategies. Students reflect upon issues of diversity from their experience in the university and in their cooperative education placements. Explores the role of different work and learning styles and diverse personal characteristics in the workplace and the classroom. Professional issues include impact of the cultural context, both in the United States and around the world, on the client, government relations, and workplace. Prereq. Junior or senior standing; engineering students only.
BIOE 3210. Bioelectricity. 4 Hours.
Discusses principles of circuits, signals, and systems in the context of operating principles of bioelectrical systems at multiple physiological scales. Offers students an opportunity to obtain the fundamental background required to interface biological systems with circuits and sensors for measurements. Covers fundamentals of structure and function of electrically active tissue including nerves, brain, and muscle, including heart. Prereq. BIOE 2355, BIOE 2365, and either GE 2361 or MATH 2341; restricted to students in the College of Engineering and in the College of Science.
BIOE 3310. Transport and Fluids for Bioengineers. 4 Hours.
Covers the fundamental principles of processes and systems in which mass, energy, and momentum are transported in typical biological problems. Emphasizes momentum transport for incompressible and compressible fluids (fluid flow) and energy transport. The methods taught are relevant to the analysis of physiological systems, processing, and separation of biological materials. Prereq. (a) BIOE 2355 and (b) GE 2361 or MATH 2341; restricted to students in the College of Engineering and in the College of Science.
BIOE 3380. Biomolecular Dynamics and Control. 4 Hours.
Focuses on the principles of thermodynamics and kinetics applied to the analysis and design of biomolecular systems. Covers foundational topics—such as mass and energy balances, chemical equilibria, and enzyme kinetics—in a biological context. Introduces the role of feedback and feed-forward control in biomolecular networks, emphasizing basic analytical and computational methods, including the use of MATLAB, for analyzing how these regulatory structures affect the dynamics of small-scale, prototypical networks. Prereq. BIOE 2355 and either GE 2361 or MATH 2341; restricted to students in the College of Engineering and in the College of Science.
BIOE 4790. Capstone Design 1. 4 Hours.
Offers students an opportunity to apply design principles to create a device or process to solve a relevant bioengineering problem. Teams develop, construct, and evaluate prototypes under real-world fiscal, regulatory, and safety conditions. Progress is monitored through a series of oral presentations in design gate review meetings. Requires a thorough written report and working prototype for course completion. Prereq. Senior standing; bioengineering majors only.
BIOE 4970. Junior/Senior Honors Project 1. 4 Hours.
Focuses on in-depth project in which a student conducts research or produces a product related to the student’s major field. Combined with Junior/Senior Project 2 or college-defined equivalent for 8-credit honors project.
BIOE 4971. Junior/Senior Honors Project 2. 4 Hours.
Focuses on second semester of in-depth project in which a student conducts research or produces a product related to the student’s major field. Prereq. BIOE 4970.
BIOE 4991. Research. 4 Hours.
Offers an opportunity to conduct research under faculty supervision. Prereq. Engineering students only.
BIOE 4992. Directed Study. 1-4 Hours.
Offers theoretical or experimental work under the direction of members of the department under a chosen topic. Course content depends on instructor. Prereq. Engineering students only.
BIOE 5060. Special Topics in Bioengineering. 4 Hours.
Focuses on topics of timely interest to students of science and engineering. Topic varies from semester to semester. When appropriate, the course takes advantage of unique opportunities afforded by visiting faculty and guests. Prereq. Junior, senior, or graduate standing; restricted to students in the College of Engineering, the College of Computer and Information Science, Bouvé College of Health Sciences, and the College of Science.
BIOE 5100. Medical Physiology. 4 Hours.
Designed to provide bioengineering students with a working knowledge of the integrated behavior of organs and systems in the human body. As such, the student is provided with a comprehensive and intense immersion in each physiological subsystem with the expectation that he or she display knowledge of each at the level equivalent to that of a second-year medical student following his or her exposure to physiology. The specific subsystems covered are muscle physiology, cardiovascular physiology with ECG interpretation, pulmonary physiology with gas exchange mechanics and ventilation/perfusion, renal physiology and water balance, regulation of pH, gastrointestinal physiology, temperature regulation and energy balance, endocrine systems, and reproductive systems. The course does not cover neurophysiology. Prereq. BIOL 1117 or equivalent and senior or graduate standing.
BIOE 5235. Biomedical Imaging. 4 Hours.
Presents the foundations of modern medical imaging, including imaging principles, imaging mathematics, imaging physics, and image-generation techniques. Includes X-ray, ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Prereq. Junior, senior, or graduate standing; restricted to students in the Bouvé College of Health Sciences, the College of Engineering, and the College of Science.
BIOE 5250. Design, Manufacture, and Evaluation of Medical Devices. 4 Hours.
Covers engineering design challenges intrinsic to the development of biomedical devices, including clinical evaluation, manufacture, and testing of medical devices and the constraints that FDA regulations place on these processes. Topics include quality systems, design control, cybersecurity concerns, the role of standards in global device regulation, and the design process. Students are asked to form teams and to carry out a semester-long conceptual design project to develop a design overview, design plan, design input specifications, and verification test procedures for a novel medical device. Prereq. Junior, senior, or graduate standing; restricted to students in the Bouvé College of Health Sciences, the College of Engineering, and the College of Science.
BIOE 5320. Advanced Biomedical Measurements and Instrumentation. 4 Hours.
Offers a comprehensive analysis of the principles underlying biomedical instrumentation, including ECG, EEG, CAT scanning, MRI imaging, and other biomedical laboratory tools. Includes associated laboratory exercises within the course material. Prereq. (a) BIOE 2365 and junior or senior standing or (b) graduate standing; engineering students and science students only.
BIOE 5380. Advanced Biomolecular Dynamics and Control. 4 Hours.
Applies the foundational principles of thermodynamics and kinetics to the analysis and design of biomolecular systems. Briefly reviews mass and energy balances, chemical equilibria, and enzyme kinetics. Emphasizes more advanced topics, such as the effect of external fields (e.g., mechanical forces, electrical potential) on biomolecular reaction equilibria and kinetics, the spatiotemporal dynamics of reactions in the context of mass transport, and the effect of spatial compartmentation on biomolecular propagation of information. Examines the role of feedback and feedforward control in biomolecular networks, focusing on analyzing how these regulatory structures affect adaptation and oscillatory behavior of small- and large-scale networks. Prereq. Junior, senior, or graduate standing; intended for students in the College of Engineering and in the College of Science; students from other disciplines are invited to enroll—requires prior knowledge of differential and integral calculus, systems of ordinary differential equations and linear algebra, coding in Matlab, and familiarity with chemical kinetics and thermodynamics.
BIOE 5410. Molecular Bioengineering. 4 Hours.
Introduces the fundamentals of molecular biology underpinning applications in molecular, cellular, and tissue engineering. Emphasizes core concepts, quantitative analyses, high-throughput advanced “-omics” techniques, and multiscale systems approaches. Explores the experimental logic and techniques used to study molecular biology and develop quantitative models. Prereq. (a) CHEM 2311, MATH 1342, either BIOL 1111 or BIOL 1115, and junior or senior standing or (b) graduate standing; restricted to students in the College of Engineering and in the College of Science.
BIOE 5420. Cellular Engineering. 4 Hours.
Analyzes the techniques that form the foundation of molecular cell engineering, including recombinant DNA, cloning and genomics, prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene regulation and single-cell gene expression, structure, dynamics of gene regulatory networks, metabolism and cellular energetics, cell structure, cytoskeleton and cellular motors, synthetic gene circuits, and metabolic engineering. Prereq. (a) BIOE 5410 and junior or senior standing or (b) graduate standing; restricted to students in the College of Engineering and in the College of Science.
BIOE 5430. Principles and Applications of Tissue Engineering. 4 Hours.
Applies the principles of biology and biomedical engineering to the creation of artificial organs for transplantation, basic research, or drug development. Requires integration of knowledge of organic chemistry, cell biology, genetics, mechanics, biomaterials, nanotechnology, and transport processes to create functional organs. Reviews basic cell culture techniques, structure function relationships, cellular communication, natural and artificial biomaterials, and the basic equations governing cell survival and tissue organization. Prereq. (a) BIOE 5410 and junior or senior standing or (b) graduate standing; restricted to students in the College of Engineering and in the College of Science.
BIOE 5630. Physiological Fluid Mechanics. 4 Hours.
Analyzes biofluids and their mechanics, including cardiovascular fluid mechanics. Examples are taken from biotechnology processes and physiologic applications, including the cardiovascular, respiratory, ocular, renal, musculoskeletal, and gastrointestinal systems. Topics include dimensional analysis, particle kinematics in Eulerian and Lagrangian reference frames, constitutive equations and Newtonian/non-Newtonian biofluid models, flow and wave propagation in flexible tubes, and oscillatory and pulsatile flows. Prereq. (a) BIOE 2355 and junior or senior standing or (b) graduate standing; restricted to students in the College of Engineering and the College of Science.
BIOE 5810. Design of Biomedical Instrumentation. 4 Hours.
Investigates the principles of biology and engineering underlying the design and use of biomedical instrumentation. Topics include design of a broad range of instrumentation and monitoring devices, sensors, and integrated systems. Prereq. (a) BIOE 2350, BIOE 2365, and junior or senior standing or (b) graduate standing; restricted to students in the College of Engineering and in the College of Science.
BIOE 5820. Biomaterials. 4 Hours.
Offers a broad overview of the field of biomaterials (materials used in medical devices that interact with living tissues). Introductory lectures cover biomaterials and their translation from the laboratory to the medical marketplace. Discusses important biomaterials terminology and concepts. Emphasizes material structure-property-function-testing relationships and discusses specific materials used in medical devices and drug delivery. Concludes with introductions to topics in the field, such as biomaterials-tissue interactions, tissue engineering, and regulatory requirements. Considers principles of device design as related to the selection and application of biomaterials. Prereq. (a) CHEM 2311, MATH 1342, either BIOL 1111 or BIOL 1115, and junior or senior standing or (b) graduate standing; restricted to students in the College of Engineering and in the College of Science.
BIOE 5850. Design of Implants. 4 Hours.
Studies the use of cell-matrix control volumes; stress analysis in design processes; anatomical fit, shape, and size of implants; biomaterials; surgical implantation procedures; testing for safety and efficacy; and design of clinical trials. Covers applications to orthopedic devices, soft tissue implants, artificial organs, and dental implants. Prereq. Junior, senior, or graduate standing; restricted to students in the College of Engineering and the College of Science.